what is TCP/IP protocol suite

Monday, June 29, 2009
tcp/ip is an industry - standard suite of protocols that enables enterprise networking and connectivity on windows xp professional based computers.adding tcp/ip to a windows xp professional configuration offers the following advantages.
  • a routable networking protocol supported by most operating systems.most large networks rely on tcp/ip
  • a technology for connecting dissinilar systems.you can use many standard connectivity tools to access and transfer data across dissimilar systems.windows xp professional includes several of these standard tools.
  • a robust, scalable, cross-platform client/server framework. tcp/ip supports the microsoft windows sockets (winsock) interface, which is ideal for developing client/server applications for winsock-compliant stacks.
  • a method of gaining access to internet resources.
the tcp/ip suite of protocols provides a set of standards for how computers communicate and how networks are interconnected. the tcp/ip suite of protocols maps to a four-layer conceptual model network interface, internet, transport and application.

how to perform check disk (chkdsk) in xp

Chkdsk requires exclusive access to a volume when it runs. Therefore, if one or more of the files are open on the disk that you want to check, Chkdsk displays a prompt asking if you want schedule the disk check for the next time that you restart your computer.Chkdsk might take a long time to run, depending on the number of files and folders, the size of the volume, disk performance, and available system resources, such as processor and memory.Chkdsk might not accurately report information in read-only mode.

Using Chkdsk at the command prompt

  • Click Start, and then Run.
  • type cmd, and then press ENTER.
Use one of the following procedures:
  • To run Chkdsk in read-only mode, at the command prompt, type chkdsk, and then press ENTER.
  • To repair errors without scanning the volume for bad sectors, at the command prompt, type chkdsk volume (drive letter):/f, and then press ENTER.

Note If one or more of the files on the hard disk are open, you will receive the following message:

  • Chkdsk cannot run because the volume is in use by another process. Would you like to schedule this volume to be checked the next time the system restarts? (Y/N)
  • Type Y, and then press ENTER to schedule the disk check, and then restart your computer to start the disk check.
  • To repair errors, locate bad sectors, and recover readable information, at the command prompt, type chkdsk volume (drive letter) :/r, and then press ENTER.

Using Chkdsk from My Computer or Windows Explorer

  • Double-click My Computer, and then right-click the hard disk that you want to check.
  • Click Properties, and then click Tools.
  • Under Error-checking, click Check Now. A dialog box that shows the Check disk options is displayed,
  • Use one of the following procedures:
  • To run Chkdsk in read-only mode, click Start.
  • To repair errors without scanning the volume for bad sectors, select the Automatically fix file system errors check box, and then click Start.
  • To repair errors, locate bad sectors, and recover readable information, select the Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors check box, and then click Start.
Note If one or more of the files on the hard disk are open, you will receive the following message:
  • The disk check could not be performed because the disk check utility needs exclusive access to some Windows files on the disk. These files can be accessed by restarting Windows. Do you want to schedule the disk check to occur the next time you restart the computer?
  • Click Yes to schedule the disk check, and then restart your computer to start the disk check.

to unhide security tab (win xp)

So to see and unhide the Security tab, just use the following steps:

  • Launch Windows Explorer or My Computer.
  • Click on the Tools at the menu bar, then click on Folder Options.
  • Click on View tab.
  • In the Advanced Settings section at the bottom of the list, uncheck and unselect (clear the tick) on the Use simple file sharing (Recommended) check box.
  • Click OK.
some tips

  • Simple File Sharing is a feature introduced in Microsoft Windows XP. Simple File Sharing removes some file sharing security options available in other versions of Windows. This helps Windows XP administrators quickly set up folder shares
  • Enabling Simple File Sharing prevents the ability to assign user-level passwords to shares. When Simple File Sharing is enabled on a computer, remote users will not be prompted for a password when accessing that computer's shares.
  • If the Windows XP Professional computer is part of a Windows domain rather than a Windows workgroup, this process for enabling or disabling Simple File Sharing has no effect. Simple File Sharing always remains disabled for computers joined to domains.

how to remove wga notification

most this happens using pirated version of windows,when someone using non genuine windows and when they want to update windows or windows media player they got this problem,because microsoft never allow non genuine users to update their windows or get any services provided by them.as a result of using non genuine windows series of warning messages displayed at start up and after login to windows.however you can remove these warning message form appearing again,to do this follow these steps.
  • go to registry (go to run command and type regedit)
  • go to the exact following key
  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\Notify
  • in there you can see wgalogon key
  • delete this key completely
  • restart your computer
  • your problem solved and warning messages never appear again
but keep in mind that this procedure is only to get rid of wga notification only,if you update windows again these warnings appear again,so if you want to be genuine,buy genuine.

understanding the TCP/IP protocol suite

tcp/ip provides communication across networks of computers with various hardware architectures and operating systems.microsoft's implementation of tcp/ip enables enterprise networking and connectivity on computers running windows xp professional.

overall view of installing windows xp professional from cd-rom

the installation process for windows xp professional combines the setup program with wizards and informational screens. installing windows xp professional from a cd-rom to a clean hard disk consists of these four stages.

running the setup program


setup prepares the hard disk for the later installation stages and copies the files necessary to run setup wizard.

running the setup wizard

the setup wizard requests setup information about the computer, such as names and passwords.

installing windows xp professional networking components

after gathering informations about the computer the setup wizard prompts you for networking informations and then installs the networking components that allow the computer to communicate with other computers on the network.

completing the installation

setup copies files to the hard disk and configures the computer,the system restarts after installation complete.

HP Compaq 6715b overview

Saturday, June 27, 2009
hp compaq 6715b specifications

Processor :
AMD Turion 64 X2 TL-60

Clock speed:
2 GHz

RAM installed:
2048 MB

Wireless LAN:
Broadcom 802.11a/b/g

Hard drive size:
160 GB

Graphics processor:
ATI Radeon X1250

Graphics RAM:
512 MB

Display diagonal size:
15.4 in

Case form factor:
clamshell

Dimensions (W x H x D):
35.7x3.5x26.5 cm

Weight:
2.7 kg

Operating system:
Windows Vista Business

HP 6730s overview

HP 6730s Notebook Specifications:

Processor:
Intel Core 2 Duo 2 GHz

Hard Disk:
250 GB

Optical Storage:
DVD±RW (+R double layer) / DVD-RAM

Memory:
3 GB RAM DDR2 SDRAM

Cache:
3 MB

Operating System:
Microsoft Windows Vista Business

Graphics Processor:
Intel GMA 4500MHD

Display:
15.4-inch TFT Active Matrix

Resolution:
1280 X 800

Dimension( D x H x W):
26.7cm x 3.2cm x 35.8cm

Weight:
2.5kg

Battery:
Lithium Ion

Networking:
Bluetooth 2.0 EDR, Wi-Fi

HP 6720s overview

HP Compaq 6720s Specifications:

Processor:
Intel Core 2 Duo Processor T5470 1.60GHz , 2MB L2 cache, 800MHz FSB

Operating System:
Microsoft Windows Vista Home Basic

Hard Drive:
120GB SATA (5400RPM), HP DriveGuard

Screen:
15.4" WXGA BrightView Widescreen (1280 x 800)

Graphics:
Intel Graphics Media Accelerator X3100

RAM:
1 x 1024MB DDR2

Optical Drive:
8x DVD+/-RW SuperMulti with Lightscribe

Battery:
6-cell lithium-ion (47 Watt/hour)

Wireless:
Intel Wireless LAN 802,11a/b/g MOW2, mini-PCI card, Bluetooth

Ports:
3 USB 2.0 ports, VGA, stereo microphone in, stereo headphone/line out, power connector, RJ-11/modem, RJ-45/Ethernet,

Slots:
ExpressCard/54 slot, Secure Digital (SD) slot

Dimensions:
1.27 in (at front) x 14.1 in x 10.5 in / 32.3 mm (at front) x 358 mm x 266.8 mm

Weight:
2.5Kgs (5.5 lbs)

ASUS Eee PC 901, 1000 and 1000(HA) overview

the product features as follows

Display
10" 1024x600 TFT LCD

Processor
Intel Atom N270 1.6GHz Processor

Chipset
Intel 945 Chipset

Operating System
Genuine Microsoft Windows XP Home

Ethernet Communication
10/100 Ethernet

WLAN
80211.g

Memory
DDR II 1GB

Storage
160GB Hard Drive

Camera
1.3MP

Connectors
3 x USB 2.0 ports
MMC/SD (HC) card reader
Ethernet port
Microphone input
Headphone jack
AC power jack
VGA out
Kensington lock slot

Audio
Hi-Definition audio
Stereo speaker
Digital Array Microphone

Battery
6 Cells, 7hrs*
* Actual battery life will depend on actual operations and other settings.

Dimensions
265.9 × 191.3 × 38.1 mm

Weight
1.45 kg

** Note that above specifications may change.

ASUS eee PC 10002H overview

the specifications as follows

Operating System
Genuine Windows® XP Home

Display
10" LED Backlight WSVGA screen (1024x600)

Intel CPU & Chipset
Intel® Atom™ N280

Memory
1GB (DDR2)

*Memory size may differ and is upgradable,

Wireless Data Network
WLAN: 802.11b/g/n @2.4GHz

Bluetooth
V2.0 + EDR

Storage
160GB HDD

Camera
1.3M Pixel

Audio
Built-in stereo speakers
High-Definition Audio CODEC
Digital Array Mic.

Input / Output
1 x VGA Port (D-sub 15-pin for external monitor)
3 x USB 2.0, 1 x LAN RJ-45
2 x Audio Jack (Head Phone / Mic-in)

Card Reader:
MMC/ SD(SDHC)/ MS/ MS-PRO

Battery
Li-polymer Battery, 5hrs*

*Operation lifetime subject to product model, normal usage conditions and configurations.

Dimensions
264mm(W) x 181mm(D) x 27.6mm(H)

Weight
1.2kg

Infusion
Pearl White, Pink, Black

** Note that above specifications may change,

kaspersky 2009 word file saving error

when you running kaspersky 2009 (ver 8.0.x.x) you figured that sometimes when you working in microsoft office package word program you cant overwrite saved word document,this will block kaspersky and your entire work have been lost so as the original file.to resolve this issue you must add those program to trusted application list.

to do so

  • Open the application
  • click settings
  • In the left pane select the Threats and exclusions section.
  • Press the trusted zone button in the exclusion section.
  • the trusted window that will open,
  • click on the Trusted Applications tab
  • now click on add button and specify the programs you dont want disturbed by kaspersky
  • now select application rules for selected applications.
  • click ok and you are done.

note - this is not happen by often and kaspersky will defenitly resolve this issue in there latest antivirus products.

create update distribution folder on kaspersky (ver 7.0)

update your kaspersky antivirus using update distribution folder.to create update distribution please follow below descriptions.

how to create update distribution folder
  • right click on kaspersky (at system tray)
  • click settings
  • click update
  • in the right pane (under update settings) click settings
  • this will open update settings page
  • in there click additional tab
  • now select update distribution folder (this will select the default path,but if you want you can customise update distribution path)
  • click ok
  • then apply and ok
now you need to update your virus guard and this will create update distribution folder at the path you selected.after update complete go to the selected path (note - there must be 3 more folders inside update distribution folder, the folder names are '' autopatches, bases, index '') copy the update distribution folder to flash drive or external hard disk.now you can update kaspersky virus guard in another pc by specifying the update distribution folder.

to do so

  • right click on kaspersky (at system tray)
  • click settings
  • click update
  • in the right pane (under update settings) click settings
  • now click update source tab
  • deselect kaspersky labs update servers if already selected.
  • click add
  • now specify the update distribution folder
  • click ok
  • again click ok
  • then apply and ok
  • now right click on kaspersky icon at system tray
  • click update
this will begin the update process,wait until the update completed.after update complete you are prompted to restart the pc.after restart pc your virus protection is available and up to date.


you can also run manual update method through network

to do so
  • right click update distribution folder where the folder was originally created location.
  • and share that folder
  • then specify the folder through network the pc you want to update.
  • click update
you can use this method over a number of pc,s through network.the pc where created update distribution folder now act as a update server for other pc,s in the network.

file systems using in windows xp

Friday, June 26, 2009
after you create the installation partition, setup prompts you to select the file system with which to format the partition.like microsoft windows NT 4 and microsoft windows 2000 professional, windows xp professional supports the NT file system (NTFS or new technology file system) and file allocation table (FAT). both windows 2000 professional and windows xp professional supports FAT 32.

use NTFS when the partition on which windows xp professional will reside requires any of the following features.
  • file and folder level security. NTFS allows you to control access to files and folders.
  • disk compression. NTFS compresses file sto store more data on the partition.
  • disk quota. NTFS allows you to control disk usage on a per-user basis.
  • encryption. NTFS allows you to encrypt file data on the physical hard disk, using the microsoft encrypting file system (EFS)
the version of NTFS in windows xp professional supports remote storage, dynamic volumes, and mounting volumes to folders. windows xp professional, windows 2000, windows 2003, and windows NT are the only operating systems that can access data on a local hard disk formatted with NTFS.

FAT and FAT 32

FAT and FAt 32 offer compatibility with other operating systems. you must format the system partition with either FAT or FAT 32 if you will dual boot windows xp professional and another operating system that requires FAT or FAt 32.

FAT and FAT 32 do not offer many of the features (for example, file level security) that NTFS supports.therefore in most situations you should format the hard disk with NTFS. the only reason to use FAT or FAT 32 is for dual booting with another operating system that does not supports NTFS. if you are setting up a computer for dual booting you need to format only the system partitions as FAt or FAT 32. for example if drive C: is the system partition you could format drive C: as FAt or FAT 32 and format drive D: as NTFS.

disk partitions

the windows xp professional setup program examine the hard disk to determine its existing configuration.setup then allows you to install windows xp professional on an existing partition or to create a new partition on which to install it.

new partition or existing partition

depending on the hard disk configuration, do one of the following during installation.
  • if the hard disk unpartitioned, create and size windows xp professional partition.
  • if the hard disk partitioned and contains enough unpartitioned disk space use the unpartitioned space to create windows xp professional partition.
  • if the existing partition is large enough, install windows xp professional on that partition.installing on an existing partition overwrites any existing data.
  • if the existing partition is not large enough, delete it to provide more unpartitioned disk space for creating the windows xp professional partition.
remaining free hard disk space

although you can use setup to create other partitions, you should create and size only the partition on which you will install windows xp professional.after you install windows xp professional, use the disk management tool to partition any remaining unpartitioned space on the hard disk.

installation partition size

microsoft recommends installing windows xp professional on a 1.5 or larger partition.although windows xp professional requires less disk space for installation, using a larger installation partition provides the flexibility to install windows xp professional updates, operating system tools, programms, user documents or other necessary files in the future.

what is hardware compatibility list (HCL)

although the windows xp professional setup wizard automatically checks your hardware and software for potential conflicts.before you install windows xp professional you should verify that your hardware is on the windows xp professional HCL.microsoft provide tested drivers for the listed devices only.using hardware not listed on HCL could cause problems during and after installation.the most version of HCL for released operating systems are on the microsoft website at http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/hcl/default.mspx

note - if your hardware is not in the HCL the hardware manufacturer might be able to provide you with a windows xp professional driver for the component.

remove autorun.inf virusus using command prompt

use "attrib" to check for Viruses or Malware

"attrib" is a very useful tool to check if your hard drives even your usb disks have been infected by a virus.

You will know if a Malware is inside your hard drive just by looking at the attributes of each files and the file that has the attributes of +s +h +r

The function of attrib is to set and remove file attributes (read-only, archive, system and hidden).


start attrib

To start attrib

  1. Go to Start Menu > Run

  2. Type cmd (cmd stands for command prompt)

  3. Press Enter key

The Command Prompt will appear showing us where is our location in the directory.


using attrib

To use attrib

Go to command prompt

1 then Go to the root of the directory first by typing cd\ then press enter.(because this is always the target of Malware / Virus)

2. Type attrib and press Enter key

+s - meaning it is a system file (which also means that you cannot delete it just by using the delete command)

+h - means it is hidden (so you cannot delete it)

+r - means it is a read only file ( which also means that you cannot delete it just by using the delete command)

Now we need to set the attributes of autorun.inf to -s -h -r (so that we can manually delete it)

  1. Type attrib -s -h -r autorun.inf in command prompt and press enter.( be sure to include -s -h -r because you cannot change the attributes using only -s or -h or -r alone)

  2. Type attrib again to check if your changes have been commited

  3. If the autorun.inf file has no more attributes, you can now delete it by typing del autorun.inf

Repeat these steps for removing virusus from the other partitions,external hard disks or usb drives.

NOTE : when autorun.inf keeps coming back even if you already deleted it, be sure to check your Task Manager by pressing CTRL + ALT + DELETE ( a virus is still running as a process. that’s why you cannot delete it. KILL the process first by selecting it and clicking End Process.use process killing softwares like runscanner or autoruns to view suspected process.you can find these softwares in here

hardware requirements

you must determine whether your hardware meets or exceeds the minimum requirement for installing and operating windows xp professional.

windows xp professional hardware requirement.
  • processor - pentium 233 mhz or equivalent
  • memory - 64 MB minimum, 128 MB recommend, 4 GB maximum
  • hard disk space - At least 1.5 gigabytes (GB) of available space on the hard disk
  • display - Video adapter and monitor with Super VGA (800 x 600)or higher resolution
  • other drives - CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive (not required for installing windows xp professional over a network)
  • accessories - keyboard and mouse or other pointing device.

preinstallation tasks

before you start the installation of windows xp professional, complete the following tasks.
  • ensure that your hardware meets the requirenments for installing windows xp professional.
  • determine whether your hardware is on the hardware compatibility list (HCL)
  • decide how you will partition the hard disk on which you will install windows xp professional.
  • choose a file system for the installation partition.
  • determine whether your computer will join a domain or a workgroup.
  • complete a preinstallation checklist.

windows xp professional authentication process

to gain access to a computer running windows xp professional or to any resource on that computer, whether the computer is configured to use the welcome screen or the log on to windows dialog box, you must provide user name and possibly a password.

how windows xp professional authenticates a user depends on whether the user is logging on to domain or logging on locally to a computer.

access token
  • provides user identity and security settings
  • enable a user to gain access to resources and perform system tasks

logging on locally to the computer

windows xp professional offers two options for login on locally.the welcome screen and the log on to windows dialog box.

the welcome screen

by default windows xp professional uses welcome screen to allow users to log on locally.to log on click the icon for the user account you want to use.if the account requires a password you are prompted to enter it.if the account is not password protected you are logged on to the computer.you can also use ctrl+alt+delete (press twice) at the welcome screen to get the log on to the windows dialog box.this enable you to log on to the administrator account which is not displayed on the welcome screen when other user accounts have been created.

a user can logon locally to either of the following
  • a computer that is a member of a workgroup
  • a computer that is a member of domain but is not a domain controler

the windows security dialog box

Wednesday, June 24, 2009
the windows security dialog box provides informations such as the user account currently logged on and the domain or computer to which the is logged on. this information is important for users with multiple user accounts, such as a user who has a regular user account as well as a user account with administrative privileges.

you access the windows security dialog box by pressing ctrl+alt+delete if the computer is joined to a domain or the welcome screen is disabled, otherwise the task manager will be activated.

lock computer

allow users to secure the computer without logging off. all programs remain running. users should lock their computers when they leave for a short time. the user who locks the computer can unlock it by pressing ctrl+alt+delete and entering the valid password. an administrator can also unlock a locked computer. this process logs off the current user.

logoff

allows a user log off as the current user and close all running programs, but leaves windows xp professional running.

shutdown

allows a user to close all files, save all operating system data, and prepare the computer so that it can be safely truned off.

change password

allows a user to change his or her user account password. the user must know the current password to create new one. this is the only way users can change their own password.administrators can also change the password.

task manager

provides a list of the programs that are running and a summary of overall cpu and memory usage, as well as a quick view of how each program, program components, or system process is using the cpu and memory resources.users can also use task manager to switch between programs and to stop a program that is not responding.

cancel

closes the windows security dialog box

domains

a domain is a logical grouping of network computers that share central directory database. a directory database contains user accounts and security informations for the domain.this database known as the directory and is the database portion of active directory service.

in a domain the directory resides on computers that are configured as domain controllers. a domain controller is a server that manages all security related aspects of user and domain interactions, centralizing security and administration.

the steps in the authentication process are as follows
  • the user logs on by providing logon information, such as username and password, and windows xp professional forwards this information to the security subsystem of that local computer.
  • windows xp professional compares the logon informations with the user informations in the local security database, which resides in the security subsystem of the local computer.
  • if the information matches and the user account is valid, windows xp professional creates access token for the user. an access token is the users identification for that local computer. it contains the users security settings, which allow the user to gain access to the appropriate resources on that computer and to perform specific system tasks.
if a user logs on to a domain, windows xp professional contacts an available domain controller in the domain. the domain controller compares the logon informations with the user information that is in the directory for the domain. if the information matches and the user account is valid, the domain controller creates an access token for the user. the user security settings contained in the access token allow the user to gain access to the appropriate resources in the domain.

workgroups (peer-to-peer)

a windows xp professional workgroup is a logical grouping of networked computers that share resources, such as files and printers. a workgroup is also called a peer-to-peer network because all computers in the workgroup can share resources as equals (peers) without a dedicated server.

each computer in the workgroup maintains a local security database, which is a list of user accounts and resource security information for the computer on which it resides.therefor using a local security database decentralizes the administration of user accounts and resource security in a workgroup.


workgroups have decentralized administration and security, the following are true.

  • a user must have a user account on each computer to which he or she wants to gain access.
  • any changes to user accounts such as changing a users password or adding a new user account, must be made on each computer in the workgroup.if you forget to add new user account to one of the computers in your workgroup, the new user will not be able to log on to that computer and will unable to access resources on it.

a workgroup provides the following advantages

  • it does not require inclusion of a domain controller in the configuration to hold centralized security informations.
  • it is simple to design and implement. it does not require the extensive planning and administration that a domain require.
  • it is a convinient networking environment for a limited number of computers in close proximity. however a workgroup becomes impractical in environments with more than 10 computers.

setup outlook 2007 for gmail forwading

Sunday, June 21, 2009
enable POP in Gmail

  1. Sign in to Gmail.
  2. Click Settings at the top of any Gmail page.
  3. Click Forwarding and POP/IMAP.
  4. Select Enable POP for all mail or Enable POP for mail that arrives from now on.
  5. it is always recommend to keep gmail copy in the inbox
  6. click save settings.
configure outlook 2007

  1. Open Outlook.
  2. Click the Tools menu, and select Account Settings...
  3. On the E-mail tab, click New...
  4. If you are prompted to Choose E-mail Service, select Microsoft Exchange, POP3, IMAP, or HTTP, and click Next.
  5. Fill in all necessary fields to include the following information
  6. Your Name: Enter your name as you would like it to appear in the From: field of outgoing messages.
  7. Email Address: Enter your full Gmail email address (username@gmail.com)
  8. Password: Enter your email password.
  9. select Manually configure server settings or additional server types
  10. Verify your User Information, and enter the following additional information
Server Information
  1. Account Type: POP3
  2. Incoming mail server: pop.gmail.com
  3. Outgoing mail server (SMTP): smtp.gmail.com
  4. in the Logon Information
  5. User Name: Enter your Gmail username (including @gmail.com)
  6. Password: Enter your Gmail password.
  7. Click the More Settings... button, and select the Outgoing Server tab.
  8. Check the box next to My outgoing server (SMTP) requires authentication and select Use same settings as my incoming mail server.
  9. Click the Advanced tab, and check the box next to This server requires an encrypted connection (SSL) under Incoming Server (POP3).
  10. In the Outgoing server (SMTP) box, enter 587 and select TLS from the drop-down menu next to Use the following type of encrypted connection:
  11. Click OK.
  12. Click Test Account Settings... After receiving 'Congratulations! All tests completed successfully', click Close.
  13. Click Next, and then click Finish.

Congratulations! You're successfully configured your client to send and retrieve Gmail messages.

setup outlook 2003 for gmail forwading

enable POP in Gmail

  1. Sign in to Gmail.
  2. Click Settings at the top of any Gmail page.
  3. Click Forwarding and POP/IMAP.
  4. Select Enable POP for all mail or Enable POP for mail that arrives from now on.
  5. it is always recommend to keep gmail copy in the inbox
  6. click save settings.

configure outlook 2003

  1. Open Outlook 2003
  2. Click the Tools menu, and select E-mail Accounts...
  3. Click Add a new e-mail account, and click Next.
  4. Choose POP3 as your server type by clicking the radio button, and click Next.
  5. carefully fill the below informations in the setup page
in the User Information field

  1. Your Name: Enter your name as you would like it to appear in the From: field of outgoing messages.
  2. Email Address: Enter your full email address
in the Server Information field

  1. Incoming mail server (POP3): pop.gmail.com
  2. Outgoing mail server (SMTP): smtp.gmail.com
in the Login Information field

  1. User Name: Enter your Gmail username (including @gmail.com)
  2. Password: Enter your gmail password
after you filled all informations
  1. Click More Settings... and then click the Outgoing Server tab.
  2. Check the box next to My outgoing server (SMTP) requires authentication and select Use same settings as my incoming mail server
  3. Click the Advanced tab, and check the box next to This server requires an encrypted connection (SSL) under Incoming Server (POP3) (the value field became 995 automatically,this is ok)
  4. Check the box next to This server requires an encrypted connection (SSL) under Outgoing Server (SMTP), and enter 465 in the Outgoing server (SMTP) box.
  5. Click OK
  6. Click Test Account Settings... After receiving Congratulations! All tests completed successfully, click Close
  7. Click Next, and then click Finish

setup outlook express for gmail forwarding

the procedure as follows

in order to send and recieve emails via outlook express you must first enable pop service gmail settings.

To enable POP in Gmail

  1. Sign in to Gmail.
  2. Click Settings at the top of any Gmail page.
  3. Click Forwarding and POP/IMAP.
  4. Select Enable POP for all mail or Enable POP for mail that arrives from now on.
  5. it is always recommend to keep gmail copy in the inbox
  6. click save settings.

configure Outlook Express

  1. Click the Tools menu, and select Accounts...
  2. Click Add, and then click Mail...
  3. Enter your name in the Display name: field, and click Next.
  4. in the Email Address field type you full gmail address (eg-name@gmail.com)
  5. in the next select Pop3 in the drop down menu
  6. in the incoming mail server (pop3) field type pop.gmail.com
  7. in the outgoing mail server (smtp) field type smtp.gmail.com
  8. click next
  9. type your full gmail address in the account name field
  10. type your password in the password filed (you used in gmail)
  11. click finish
  12. go to the accounts page again (tools > accounts)
  13. in the mail tab select the account you create and click properties
  14. in the Servers tab, check the box next to the My server requires authentication.
  15. go to the advanced tab
  16. Under Outgoing Mail (SMTP), check the box next to This server requires a secure connection (SSL).
  17. Enter 465 in the Outgoing mail (SMTP): field.
  18. Under Incoming mail (POP3), check the box next to This server requires a secure connection (SSL). The port will change to 995 automatically. (this is ok)
  19. Make sure you enter the correct information in each field.
  20. Click OK.

Congratulations! You're successfully configured your mail client to send and recieve Gmail messages.

reduce picture size before email

Friday, June 19, 2009
this is a quick method and you dont need special softwares for reducing your picture size.

  • select the picture (or pictures) you want to email
  • right click on them and point mouse to send to
  • now click mail recipient
  • the message box shows up and there you have to select '' make all my pictures smaller ''
  • depending on your default email settings pictures will be attached to the your default email client.
  • now type the address you want to pictures send to
  • click send.

how to change default email client (win xp)

the procedure as follows

  • login as a administrator
  • open internet explorer
  • click on the tools menu
  • click programs tab
  • under program tab and click on the email and select your preferred email client in drop down menu
  • once selected click apply and ok.
you are done.

hidden file scanner (HFS)

Hidden File Scanner is a free tool that scans drives for hidden files that contained across many directories on your Windows.Hidden File Scanner is portable,there for no installation is required.

Using HFS

You can straight away run the exe file.On the main window, select the drives that you want scan for hidden files.You can choose to scan all drives if you want to, just click the All Drives link.Before you hit the Scan button,you can specify whether to exclude system files, exclude directories from the search.This way, the search results are more logical to view.After complete scan, a list of hidden files will be displayed in the main window. From there, you are allow to unhide or delete them.

In addition, Hidden File Scanner also does a quick scan at start up to detect the appearance of autorun.inf files on all devices including removable media (such as pen drives and external hard disks) If such an autorun.inf file is found, a dialog box will appear where you can either delete, unhide or inspect the content of the autorun.inf. This tool will automatically rate the autorun.inf files as normal, hidden, suspicious or dangerous file.

Note - dont mess up your pc,s

Note that every hidden files is not a virus,you must not simply delete any hidden files found, or otherwise your system will be crashed. If you have such files, and their file name does not help you to identify the file, right click it and open the file information dialog. You will see for most executable files the copyright of the executable file, which might help you identifying it.

download HFS here

overview of combofix

Combofix is a freeware ,Combofix was designed to scan a computer for known malware, spyware and remove them.the process runs completely automatically.you just have to wait and watch.

ComboFix allows the manual removal of spyware infections . It 's a specialized effective cleaning tool, which is useful compared to other malware and spyware removers.

After Combofix finished,a report will be created. You can use this report to search and remove infections which are not automatically removed.

instructions to use combofix

  • Disable or Close all anti-spyware, anti-malware or antivirus real-time protection, which may affect ComboFix. (you must do this)
  • Download the latest version of Combo Fix.
  • Close all programs of you computer.
  • Double click ComboFix.exe on you desktop.
  • Proceed with extreme caution.
  • When Combofix finished, it will create a new log file for you.
you can download combofix from here

overview of autoruns

autoruns is a utility, which has the most comprehensive knowledge of auto-starting locations of any startup monitor, shows you what programs are configured to run during system bootup or login, and shows you the entries in the order Windows processes them. These programs include ones in your startup folder, Run, RunOnce, and other Registry keys. You can configure Autoruns to show other locations, including Explorer shell extensions, toolbars, browser helper objects, Winlogon notifications, auto-start services, and much more. Autoruns goes way beyond the MSConfig utility bundled with Windows Me and XP.

Autoruns' Hide Signed Microsoft Entries option helps you to zoom in on third-party auto-starting images that have been added to your system and it has support for looking at the auto-starting images configured for other accounts configured on a system.

you can download autoruns from here

overview of runscanner

Runscanner is a completely free windows system utility which scans your system for all configured running programs.You can use runscanner to detect autostart programs, spyware, adware, homepage hijackers, unverified drivers and other problems.

running methods of runscanner

Beginner mode

This is for beginners that want to do a scan and upload their results to a malware specialist forum.You cannot make any changes in this mode.

Expert mode

This is for advanced users, all startup tweaks, scanning, reporting, filtering and delete features are available.

Malware removal abilities of runscanner

  • Powerful process killer.
  • Kill multiple processes at once.
  • Kill and rename.
  • Kill and delete.
  • Delete at next reboot.
  • Analysis of loaded modules.
  • Regedit jump.
  • Explorer jump.
download runscanner from here

ntfs / security permissions

these security only applicable in NTFS partitions only.it can assign to folder level permissions and file level permissions.it can applied in locally or over the network.

below steps is about how to activate permissions tab in windows xp
  • go to the folder option
  • click view tab
  • scroll to the bottom and find '' use simple file sharing ''
  • if it already selected uncheck '' simple file sharing ''
  • click apply and ok
now you can see the permission tab in the files and folders.from there you can assign permission as you want.

permissions (from lowest to highest)
  • read - open folder and its sub folders,open files inside them
  • list folder content - arrange the sub folders and files and traverse in that folder
  • read and execute - to execute executable files in that folder (eg - exe,bat)
  • write - edit files, create sub folder and files in that folder,paste files to folder copied or moved from another location.
  • modify - delete folder and its sub content.
  • full control - managing inheritance , take ownership , set permissions.
Note - when user gets permissions of '' write '' he also gets permissions of '' read '' - '' list folder content '' - '' read and execute ''

how to create hardware profile

Monday, June 15, 2009
You must be logged on as an administrator or a member of the Administrators group in order to complete this procedure.

to create hardware profile
  • right click my computer
  • click properties
  • click hardware tab
  • click hardware profiles
  • Under Available hardware profiles, click Profile 1 (Current), and then click Copy
  • rename as you like (eg - power save)
  • click ok
once you restart pc it displays available hardware profiles,select any profile and proceed to windows.when you changes to your logged in profile (eg - disable some device) it automatically saved.you can see changes done to the pc by restarting your pc and login with the same hardware profile.we can use this method for a power savings for laptops (by disabling devices that you dont frequently used) because they used considerable amount of power from battery.

error codes and there meanings

This section lists the error codes and possible resolutions for the error codes. The error codes are listed in numeric order.

Before you continue, make sure that you have the error code available. You can view the error code in the device Properties dialog box available in Device Manager. You can also resolve many of the errors within Device Manager.

To start troubleshooting, follow these steps:
  1. Make sure that Device Manager is open, and that the device that has the problem is selected. You can perform some recommended resolutions through Device Manager.
    1. Right-click My Computer, and then click Properties.
    2. Select the Hardware tab, and then click Device Manager.
    3. Double-click the device type that has the problem. For example, if you have problems with your modem, double-click Modems to see the devices in that category.

      A list of devices appears. If a device has problems, the device has a red exclamation point next to it. If a device is unknown (usually because of missing drivers), the device has a yellow question mark next to it.
    4. Right-click the device that has the problem, and then click Properties. This opens the device Properties dialog box. You can see the error code in the Device status area of this dialog box.
  2. Use the Troubleshooting Wizard, if it is available, to help you diagnose and resolve your problem.
    1. On the device Properties dialog box, click the General tab.
    2. Click Troubleshoot to start the Troubleshooting Wizard. The wizard asks you some simple questions and provides a solution to your problem based on the answers that you provide. If the Troubleshooting Wizard is not available, go to step 3.
    3. Follow the resolution steps provided by the wizard to resolve the problem.
    4. Check the Device status area of the device Properties dialog box to see whether the error is resolved. If the error is resolved, you are finished. Otherwise, go to step 3.
  3. If the Troubleshooting Wizard did not help you resolve your problem or was not available, locate your error code in this article.

  4. Follow the recommended resolutions for that error code.
    • Check the Device status area of the device Properties dialog box to see whether the error is resolved. If the error is resolved, you are finished.
    • If the problem still occurs, unfortunately, this article did not resolve your problem. For your next steps, you may want to ask someone for help.

    Codes 1 through 10

    Review this section if you have received an error code between 1 through 10.

    Code 1
    This device is not configured correctly. (Code 1)
    Cause

    The device has no drivers installed on your computer, or the drivers are configured incorrectly.

    Recommended resolution

    Update the driver

    You may be prompted to provide the path of the driver. Windows may have the driver built-in, or may still have the driver files installed from the last time that you set up the device. If you are asked for the driver and you do not have it, you can try to download the latest driver from the hardware vendor’s Web site.

    In the device properties dialog box, click the Driver tab, and then click Update Driver to start the Hardware Update Wizard. Follow the instructions to update the driver. If updating the driver does not work, see your hardware documentation for more information.
Code 3
The driver for this device might be corrupted, or your system may be running low on memory or other resources. (Code 3)
Recommended resolutions

Here are some things that you can try to resolve this problem.

Close some open applications

If the computer has insufficient memory to run the device, you can close some applications to make memory available. You can also check memory and system resources, and the virtual memory settings.
  • To check memory and system resources, open Task Manager. To open Task Manager, press CTRL+ALT+DELETE, and then click Task Manager.
  • To check virtual memory settings, right-click My Computer, click Properties, click the Advanced tab, and then click Settings in the Performance area.
Uninstall and reinstall the driver

The device driver may have become corrupted. If the driver is corrupted, uninstall the driver from Device Manager and scan for new hardware to install the driver again.

You may be prompted to provide the path of the driver. Windows may have the driver built-in, or may still have the driver files installed from the last time that you set up the device. However, sometimes, it will open the New Hardware Wizard which may ask for the driver. If you are asked for the driver and you do not have it, you can try to download the latest driver from the hardware vendor’s Web site.
  1. On the device Properties dialog box, click the Driver tab, and then click Uninstall. Follow the instructions.
  2. Restart your computer.
  3. Open Device Manager, click Action, and then click Scan for hardware changes. Follow the instructions.
Install additional RAM

You may have to install additional random access memory (RAM).

Code 10

If the device has a FailReasonString value in its hardware key, that string is displayed as the error message. The driver or enumerator puts this registry string value there. If there is no FailReasonString in the hardware key, you receive the following error message:
This device cannot start. (Code 10)
Recommended resolutions

Here are some things that you can try to resolve this problem.

Update the driver

In the device Properties dialog box, click the Driver tab, and then click Update Driver to start the Hardware Update Wizard. Follow the instructions to update the driver.

You may be prompted to provide the path of the driver. Windows may have the driver built-in, or may still have the driver files installed from the last time that you set up the device. If you are asked for the driver and you do not have it, you can try to download the latest driver from the hardware vendor’s Web site.

Codes 11 through 20

Review this section if you have received an error code between 11 and 20.

Code 12
This device cannot find enough free resources that it can use. If you want to use this device, you will need to disable one of the other devices on this system. (Code 12)
Cause

This error can occur if two devices that are installed on your computer have been assigned the same I/O ports, the same interrupt, or the same Direct Memory Access channel (either by the BIOS, the operating system, or both). This error message can also appear if the BIOS did not allocate enough resources to the device.

Recommended resolution

You can use the Troubleshooting Wizard in Device Manager to determine where the conflict is, and then disable the conflicting device.

Disable the conflicting device
  1. On the device Properties dialog box, click the General tab.
  2. Click Troubleshoot to start the Troubleshooting Wizard. The wizard asks you some simple questions and provides a solution to your problem based on the answers that you provide.
  3. Follow the resolution steps provided by the wizard to resolve the problem.
Code 14
This device cannot work properly until you restart your computer. (Code 14)
Recommended resolution

Restart your computer

Click Start, click Shut Down, and then select Restart in the Shut Down Windows dialog box to restart the computer.

Code 16
Windows cannot identify all the resources this device uses. (Code 16)
Cause

The device is only partly configured.

Recommended resolution

Assign additional resources to the device

Note The following steps might only work if the device is a Plug and Play device. If the device is not a Plug and Play device, you can refer to the device documentation for more information.
  1. On the device Properties dialog box, click the Resources tab.
  2. If a resource is listed with a question mark next to it, select that resource to assign it to the device.
    • If the resource cannot be changed, click Change Settings.
    • If Change Settings is unavailable, try clearing the Use automatic settings check box to make it available.
Code 18
Reinstall the drivers for this device. (Code 18)
Recommended resolution

Update the driver. If that does not work, reinstall the driver for this device through Device Manager.

You may be prompted to provide the path of the driver. Windows may have the driver built-in, or may still have the driver files installed from the last time that you set up the device. If you are asked for the driver and you do not have it, you can try to download the latest driver from the hardware vendor’s Web site.

Update the driver

In the device Properties dialog box, click the Driver tab, and then click Update Driver to start the Hardware Update Wizard. Follow the instructions to update the driver. If this does not work, you will have to uninstall and reinstall the driver.

Uninstall and reinstall the driver

If the driver is corrupted, uninstall the driver from Device Manager and scan for new hardware to install the driver again.
  1. On the device properties dialog box, click the Driver tab, and then click Uninstall. Follow the instructions.
  2. Restart your computer.
  3. Open Device Manager, click Action, and then click Scan for hardware changes. Follow the instructions.
Code 19
Windows cannot start this hardware device because its configuration information (in the registry) is incomplete or damaged. To fix this problem you can first try running a Troubleshooting Wizard. If that does not work, you should uninstall and then reinstall the hardware device. (Code 19)
Recommended resolutions

A registry problem was detected.

This can occur when more than one service is defined for a device, if there is a failure opening the service subkey, or if the driver name cannot be obtained from the service subkey. Here are some things that you can try to resolve this problem.

Uninstall and reinstall the driver

Uninstall the driver from Device Manager and scan for new hardware to install the driver again.

You may be prompted to provide the path of the driver. Windows may have the driver built-in, or may still have the driver files installed from the last time that you set up the device. However, sometimes, it will open the New Hardware Wizard which may ask for the driver. If you are asked for the driver and you do not have it, you can try to download the latest driver from the hardware vendor’s Web site.
  1. On the device Properties dialog box, click the Driver tab, and then click Uninstall. Follow the instructions.
  2. Restart your computer.
  3. Open Device Manager, click Action, and then click Scan for hardware changes. Follow the instructions.
Revert to the most recent successful registry configuration

This content is designed for an advanced computer user.

The Last Known Good Configuration feature is a recovery option that you can use to start your computer by using the most recent settings that worked. The Last Known Good Configuration feature restores all the registry information and driver settings that were in effect the last time that the computer started successfully.

Codes 21 through 30

Review this section if you have received an error code between 21 and 30.

Code 21
Windows is removing this device. (Code 21)
Recommended resolution

This error means that Windows is in the process of removing the device. However, the device has not yet been completely removed. Here are some things that you can try to resolve this problem.
  • Wait several seconds, and then press the F5 key to update the Device Manager view.
  • If that does not resolve the problem, restart your computer. Click Start, click Shut Down, and then select Restart in the Shut Down Windows dialog box to restart the computer.
Code 22
This device is disabled. (Code 22)
Recommended resolution

Enable the device by using Device Manager.

In Device Manager, click Action, and then click Enable Device. This starts the Enable Device wizard. Follow the instructions.

Code 24
This device is not present, is not working properly, or does not have all its drivers installed. (Code 24)
Cause

The device is installed incorrectly. The problem could be a hardware failure, or a new driver might be needed.

Devices stay in this state if they have been prepared for removal. After you remove the device, this error disappears.

Recommended resolution

Remove the device, and this error should be resolved.

Code 28
The drivers for this device are not installed. (Code 28)
Recommended resolution

Install the driver

You may be prompted to provide the path of the driver. Windows may have the driver built-in. If you are asked for the driver and you do not have it, you can try to download the latest driver from the hardware vendor’s Web site.

In the device Properties dialog box, click the Driver tab, and then click Update Driver to start the Hardware Update Wizard. Follow the instructions to install the driver.

Code 29
This device is disabled because the firmware of the device did not give it the required resources. (Code 29)
Recommended resolution

Enable the device in the BIOS.

Enable the device in the BIOS

Enable the device in the BIOS of the device. For information about how to make this change, see the hardware documentation or contact the hardware vendor.

Codes 31 through 40

Code 31
This device is not working properly because Windows cannot load the drivers required for this device. (Code 31)
Recommended resolution

Update the driver

You may be prompted to provide the path of the driver. Windows may have the driver built-in, or may still have the driver files installed from the last time that you set up the device. However, sometimes, it will open the New Hardware Wizard which may ask for the driver. If you are asked for the driver and you do not have it, you can try to download the latest driver from the hardware vendor’s Web site.

In the device Properties dialog box, click the Driver tab, and then click Update Driver to start the Hardware Update Wizard. Follow the instructions to update the driver.

Code 32
A driver (service) for this device has been disabled. An alternate driver may be providing this functionality. (Code 32)
Cause

The start type for this driver is set to disabled in the registry.

Recommended resolutions

Reinstall the driver for this device. If this does not work, you might have to change the device start type parameter in the registry.

Uninstall and reinstall the driver

Uninstall the driver from Device Manager, and then scan for new hardware to install the driver again.

You may be prompted to provide the path of the driver. Windows may have the driver built-in, or may still have the driver files installed from the last time that you set up the device. However, sometimes, it will open the New Hardware Wizard which may ask for the driver. If you are asked for the driver and you do not have it, you can try to download the latest driver from the hardware vendor’s Web site.
  1. On the device Properties dialog box, click the Driver tab, and then click Uninstall. Follow the instructions.
  2. Restart your computer.
  3. Open Device Manager, click Action, and then click Scan for hardware changes. Follow the instructions.
Change the start type in the Registry

Code 33
Windows cannot determine which resources are required for this device. (Code 33)
Recommended resolution

The translator that determines the kinds of resources that are required by the device has failed.

Recommended resolution

Configure the hardware. If configuring the hardware does not work, you might have to replace it.

Configure or replace the hardware

If running the Troubleshooting Wizard did not resolve the problem, configure or replace the device. Contact the device hardware vendor for more information about how to configure or replacing the device.

Code 34
Windows cannot determine the settings for this device. Consult the documentation that came with this device and use the Resource tab to set the configuration. (Code 34)
Recommended resolution

Manually configure the device.

This content is designed for an advanced computer user.

Manually configure the device

The device requires manual configuration. See the hardware documentation or contact the hardware vendor for instructions on manually configuring the device. After you configure the device itself, you can use the Resources tab in Device Manager to configure the resource settings in Windows.

Code 35
Your computer's system firmware does not include enough information to properly configure and use this device. To use this device, contact your computer manufacturer to obtain a firmware or BIOS update. (Code 35)
Cause

The Multiprocessor System (MPS) table, which stores the resource assignments for the BIOS, is missing an entry for your device and must be updated.

Recommended resolution

Contact the system vendor to update the BIOS.

Code 36
This device is requesting a PCI interrupt but is configured for an ISA interrupt (or vice versa). Please use the computer's system setup program to reconfigure the interrupt for this device. (Code 36)
Recommended resolution

The interrupt request (IRQ) translation failed. Change the settings for the IRQ reservations.

This content is designed for an advanced computer user.

Change the settings for IRQ reservations

For more information about how to change BIOS settings, see the hardware documentation.

You can also try to use the BIOS setup tool to change the settings for IRQ reservations (if such options exist). The BIOS might have options to reserve certain IRQs for peripheral component interconnect (PCI) or ISA devices.

Code 37
Windows cannot initialize the device driver for this hardware. (Code 37)
Recommended resolution

The driver returned a failure when it executed the DriverEntry routine. Reinstall the drivers for this device.

Uninstall and reinstall the driver

Uninstall the driver from Device Manager, and then scan for new hardware to install the driver again. You may be prompted to provide the path of the driver. Windows may have the driver built-in, or may still have the driver files installed from the last time that you set up the device. However, sometimes, it will open the New Hardware Wizard which may ask for the driver. If you are asked for the driver and you do not have it, you can try to download the latest driver from the hardware manufacturer’s Web site.
  1. On the device Properties dialog box, click the Driver tab, and then click Uninstall. Follow the instructions.
  2. Restart your computer.
  3. Open Device Manager, click Action, and then click Scan for hardware changes. Follow the instructions.
Code 38
Windows cannot load the device driver for this hardware because a previous instance of the device driver is still in memory. (Code 38)
Recommended resolution

The driver could not be loaded because a previous instance is still loaded. Restart the computer.

Use the Troubleshooting Wizard

If you have not already run the Troubleshooting Wizard, do so now.
  1. On the device Properties dialog box, click the General tab.
  2. Click Troubleshoot to start the Troubleshooting Wizard. The wizard asks you some simple questions and provides a solution to your problem based on the answers that you provide.
  3. Follow the resolution steps provided by the wizard to resolve the problem.
Restart your computer

Click Start, click Shut Down, and then select Restart in the Shut Down Windows dialog box to restart the computer.

Code 39
Windows cannot load the device driver for this hardware. The driver may be corrupted or missing. (Code 39)
Cause

There are several causes of Code 39 errors:
  • A required device driver is missing.
  • A required binary file is corrupted.
  • There is a problem with the file I/O process.
  • A driver that is referencing an entry point in another binary file is unable to load.
Recommended resolution

Reinstall the drivers for this device.

Uninstall and reinstall the driver

Uninstall the driver from Device Manager, and then scan for new hardware to install the driver again.

You may be prompted to provide the path of the driver. Windows may have the driver built-in, or may still have the driver files installed from the last time that you set up the device. However, sometimes, it will open the New Hardware Wizard which may ask for the driver. If you are asked for the driver and you do not have it, you can try to download the latest driver from the hardware vendor’s Web site.
  1. On the device Properties dialog box, click the Driver tab, and then click Uninstall. Follow the instructions.
  2. Restart your computer.
  3. Open Device Manager, click Action, and then click Scan for hardware changes. Follow the instructions.
Code 40
Windows cannot access this hardware because its service key information in the registry is missing or recorded incorrectly. (Code 40)
Recommended resolution

Information in the registry's service subkey for the driver is invalid. Reinstall the drivers for this device.

Uninstall and reinstall the driver

Uninstall the driver from Device Manager, and then scan for new hardware to install the driver again.

You may be prompted to provide the path of the driver. Windows may have the driver built-in, or may still have the driver files installed from the last time that you set up the device. However, sometimes, it will open the New Hardware Wizard which may ask for the driver. If you are asked for the driver and you do not have it, you can try to download the latest driver from the hardware vendor’s Web site.
  1. On the device Properties dialog box, click the Driver tab, and then click Uninstall. Follow the instructions.
  2. Restart your computer.
  3. Open Device Manager, click Action, and then click Scan for hardware changes. Follow the instructions.

Codes 41 through 50

Review this section if you have received an error code between 41 and 50.

Code 41
Windows successfully loaded the device driver for this hardware but cannot find the hardware device. (Code 41)
Recommended resolution

This problem occurs if you install a driver for a non-Plug and Play device, but Windows cannot find the device. Here are some things that you can try to resolve this problem.

If the Troubleshooting Wizard does not resolve the problem, do one of the following:
  • If the device was removed, uninstall the driver, connect the device, and then click Scan for hardware changes to reinstall the driver.
  • If the hardware was not removed, the driver files might be obsolete. In this case, update the driver from Device Manager. In the device Properties dialog box, click the Driver tab, and then click Update Driver to start the Hardware Update Wizard. Follow the instructions to update the driver.
  • If the device is a non-Plug and Play device, you may have to install a newer version of the driver. To install non-Plug and Play devices, use the Add Hardware wizard. Click Start, and then click Run. In the Open box, type hdwwiz.cpl.
Code 42
Windows cannot load the device driver for this hardware because there is a duplicate device already running in the system. (Code 42)
Recommended resolution

A duplicate device was detected. This error occurs when a bus driver incorrectly creates two identically named sub-processes (known as a bus driver error), or when a device with a serial number is discovered in a new location before it is removed from the old location. You may be able to resolve this problem by restarting your computer.

Restart your computer

Click Start, click Shut Down, and then select Restart in the Shut Down Windows dialog box to restart the computer.

Code 43
Windows has stopped this device because it has reported problems. (Code 43)
Recommended resolution

One of the drivers controlling the device notified the operating system that the device failed in some manner.

If you have already run the Troubleshooting Wizard, you might want to check the hardware documentation for more information about diagnosing the problem.

Code 44
An application or service has shut down this hardware device. (Code 44)
Recommended resolution

Restart your computer.

Restart your computer

Click Start, click Shut Down, and then select Restart in the Shut Down Windows dialog box to restart the computer.

Code 45
Currently, this hardware device is not connected to the computer. (Code 45)
Recommended resolution

This error occurs if a device that was previously connected to the computer is no longer connected. To resolve this problem, reconnect this hardware device to the computer.

No resolution is necessary. This error code is only used to indicate the disconnected status of the device and does not require you to resolve it. The error code resolves automatically when you connect the associated device to the computer

Code 46
Windows cannot gain access to this hardware device because the operating system is in the process of shutting down. (Code 46)
Recommended resolution

The device is not available because the system is shutting down.

No resolution is necessary. The hardware device should work correctly next time that you start the computer.

This error code is only set when Driver Verifier is enabled and all applications have already been shut down.

Code 47
Windows cannot use this hardware device because it has been prepared for safe removal, but it has not been removed from the computer. (Code 47)
Recommended resolutions

Here are some things that you can try to resolve this problem.

Reconnect the device

This error code occurs only if you used the Safe Removal application to prepare the device for removal, or pressed a physical eject button.

Reconnect the device to your computer

Disconnect this device from the computer, and then connect it again.

Restart your computer

Make sure that the device is connected correctly to your computer, and then restart your computer. Click Start, click Shut Down, and then select Restart in the Shut Down Windows dialog box to restart the computer.

Code 48
The software for this device has been blocked from starting because it is known to have problems with Windows. Contact the hardware vendor for a new driver. (Code 48)
Recommended resolution

Update the driver.

Update the driver

Contact the manufacturer of your hardware device to obtain the latest version or the updated driver. Then, install it on your computer.

Code 49
Windows cannot start new hardware devices because the system hive is too large (exceeds the Registry Size Limit). (Code 49)
Cause

The system hive has exceeded its maximum size and new devices cannot work until the size is reduced. The system hive is a permanent part of the registry associated with a set of files that contains information related to the configuration of the computer on which the operating system is installed. Configured items include applications, user preferences, devices, and so on. The problem might be specific devices that are no longer attached to the computer but are still listed in the system hive.

Recommended resolution

Here are some things that you can try to resolve this problem.

This content is designed for an advanced computer user.

Uninstall devices that you are no longer using

To resolve this problem, you should first try uninstalling any hardware devices that you are no longer using.
  1. Set up Device Manager to show devices that are no longer connected to the computer.
    1. Click Start, and then click Run.
    2. In the Open box, type cmd. The Command Prompt window opens.
    3. At the prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
      set devmgr_show_nonpresent_devices=1
  2. In Device Manager, click View, and then click Show hidden devices. You will now be able to see devices that are not connected to the computer.
    1. Select the device that you want to uninstall.
    2. On the device Properties dialog box, click the Driver tab, and then click Uninstall. Follow the instructions.
    3. Restart your computer.
  3. Uninstall the devices that you no longer need.
  4. Check the device Properties dialog box in Device Manager to see whether the error is resolved.

what are digitally signed drivers

after the difficulty experience with the windows 2000 Microsoft has realized the importance of driver compatibility with windows.the hardware manufactured and then come up with there driver compatible with Microsoft operating systems.and they were tested at Microsoft labs.once a driver found compatible with Microsoft it was added with the CAB file as a digital signature.now when drivers installing into windows its looks for this CAB file.the drivers are proceeded if it founds digital signed,but otherwise there are 3 option of actions as below.
  • ignore
  • warn
  • block

remote access service (RAS)

RAS was a service provided by Windows NT which allows most of the services which would be available on a network to be accessed over a modem link. The service includes support for dialup and logon, and then presents the same network interface as the normal network drivers. It is not necessary to run Windows NT on the client - there are client versions for other Windows operating systems.

A feature built into Windows NT that enables users to log into an NT-based LAN using a modem, X.25 connection or WAN link. RAS works with several major network protocols, including TCP/IP, IPX, and NBF.

for example


when the user needs to connect to the lan at the office time to time from remote location the RAS has to configured at the office.the RAS has attached to the modem and a fixed phoneline.once the remote user dials to the phone number of RAS using his dialup connection the RAS accepts the call and validate user credential.if the user is authorised he is allowed to connect to the office lan.

callback

in remote access,the callback option is allow the RAS to called back to the remote user once the account validated.there are 2 options,

  • set by a caller
the remote user will be callback by the RAS to any number the user has called from.
  • always callback to
in this option RAS calls back to a predefined number set under the user account.no matter which number the user calls from.

internet connection sharing (ICS)

Overview of ICS

If you have multiple computers, you can use ICS to allow you and others on your local area network (LAN) to perform different tasks simultaneously. For example, one person can send and receive e-mail messages, while another person downloads a file, and another person browses the Internet. You can also gain access to your corporate e-mail accounts from a client computer while others on your LAN cannot. With ICS You can use Web-enabled programs (such as downloading updates) as well as Microsoft NetMeeting and other video conferencing programs.

when ICS is enabled in the computer it also act as a DHCP,DNS,GATEWAY for the clients.The connection to the Internet is shared to other computers on the local area network (LAN). The network adapter that is connected to the LAN is configured with a static IP address of 192.168.0.1 and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 ICS can only be used in workgroup envirenment.

How to use Internet Connection Sharing


To use Internet Connection Sharing to share your Internet connection, the host computer must have one network adapter that is configured to connect to the internal network, and one network adapter or modem that is configured to connect to the Internet.

On the host computer

On the host computer, follow these steps to share the Internet connection:
  • Log on to the host computer as Administrator or as Owner.
  • Click Start, and then click Control Panel.
  • Click Network and Internet Connections.
  • Click Network Connections.
  • Right-click the connection that you use to connect to the Internet. For example, if you connect to the Internet by using a modem, right-click the connection that you want under Dial-up.
  • Click Properties.
  • Click the Advanced tab.
  • Under Internet Connection Sharing, select the Allow other network users to connect through this computer's Internet connection check box.
  • If you are sharing a dial-up Internet connection, select the Establish a dial-up connection whenever a computer on my network attempts to access the Internet check box if you want to permit your computer to automatically connect to the Internet.
  • Click OK.
You receive the following message:

When Internet Connection Sharing is enabled, your LAN adapter will be set to use IPaddress 192.168.0.1. Your computer may lose connectivity with other computers onyour network. If these other computers have static IP addresses, it is a good idea to set themto obtain their IP addresses automatically. Are you sure you want to enable InternetConnection Sharing?
  • Click Yes.

system recovery (safe mode)

what is safe mode

when running in safe mode only the minimum required drivers are loading.this includes following.
  • Vga with minimum drivers
  • Floppy,harddisk and cdrom controller drivers
  • Keyboard and mouse drivers
when run on the safe mode only the minimum required drivers to start the computer would be loaded in the boot up process.there for is possible to boot in the safe mode and remove any problematic hardware or its driver prevents the system from starting.

Getting to a Recovery Menu

Instead WinXP uses the combination of Safe Mode and System Recovery to effect repair of your WinXP installation. You also can try the "Last Known Good Configuration" boot option to try to restore your Windows XP system to a workable state if critical system files are not damaged.

To enter the location where these options are available restart your computer then press F8 right after the BIOS message disappears and again after selecting the operating system. You should see these below options.

  • Safe Mode
  • Last Known Good Configuration
  • Start Windows Normally
Selecting these options will do the following:
  • Safe Mode
takes you to a stripped-down version of Windows where only the most basic of Windows functions are available to help you troubleshoot your problem. You can choose System Restore in Safe Mode.
  • Last Known Good Configuration
when changes made to a system during a session they are added to a registry setting called default configuration.these newly added settings to the default configuration will be added to a another register setting called Last Known Good Configuration.in instance or just after a restart and logon boot both default and Last Known Good Configuration are equal.
  • Start Windows Normally
will load Windows in the regular fashion. If you were having problems last time you attempted to load Windows this option may not work.

system recover (ntldr missing)

The Windows XP CDs has a tool called the Recovery Console which can be used to repair errors that prevent Windows XP from starting using the command line.

  • Insert the Windows CD and start the computer.
  • When the Welcome to Setup screen appears, press R.
  • Type a number corresponding to the Windows installation you wish to repair (this means windows partition,usually 1) and press Enter.
  • When prompted, type the administrator password and press Enter.if there is no password leave it blank and press Enter
  • From the command prompt, copy NTLDR and NTDETECT.COM from the i386 folder of the CD to the root folder of the hard drive. In the example commands given below, C: is the hard drive and D: is the CD-ROM drive. You will need to change the drive letters if appropriate:
    COPY D:\I386\NTLDR C:\
    COPY D:\I386\NTDETECT.COM C:\
  • Remove the Windows XP CD from the drive and restart the computer.
Your ntldr missing problem will be solved

bootup process of windows

Saturday, June 13, 2009
the process which happens from the time the computer is switch on to the time user logon is called as bootup process.

steps of bootup process

  • preboot sequence
  • boot sequence
  • kernal load
  • kernal initialization
  • logon
preboot sequence divided into 3 steps

  • post (power on self test)
  • MBR (master boot record loading)
  • nt loader (ntldr loading)

print devices (printers)

the print device is a hardware device that is used to take the hard copy of the document.

local printer

when the print device is physically attached to computer it becomes a local printer for the particular computer.

network printer

a shared print device which could be accessed by the client of a network is called as a network printer.

print server

a computer which is physically attached with a print device and also dedicated to control print related activities.

requirement of a print server

  • higher harddisk capacity
  • higher memory capacity
print drivers

a software interface between the print device and the operating system called as print drivers.

print spooling

in windows when a print job is added to the print que .its automatically and temporarily saved to the harddisk.this is calling spooling.

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