Friday, July 31, 2009

changing the location of the spool folder

the spool folder is used by the windows 2003 print spooler service as a temporary storage are for print jobs waiting to be sent to a print device. the default location for the spool folder is

configuring printer permissions

printer permissions are specially allowed or denied to individual users and groups. by default, the print permissions is allowed to the everyone group. user and group printer permission are additive, and typically the least restrictive combination of printer permissions applies.

an exception oto this rule occurs when a user or group is specifically denied a printer permission. if a user is denied a printer permission, or any group the user is a member of is denied printer permission, then the suer is denied that printer permission. a denied permission always overrides a corresponding allowed permission.

printer permissions are set on a printer-by-printer basis. these permissions apply both when the printer is accessed over the network and when the printer is accessed from the local computer.

printer permissions, descriptions and functionality

print - a user with this permission can connect to the printer and send print jobs to the printer. by default the print permissions is assigned to the everyone group.

manage document - a user with this permission can pause, resume, restart and delete print jobs sent to the printer, by default members of the creator owner group are assigned the management documents printer permissions. this enables users who create print jobs to manage their own print jobs.

manage printers - a user with this permission can perform all tasks included in the print permissions. in addition, the user can pause, restart, and share the printer, can change spooler settings, can assign printer permissions (including the manage documents permission) and can change the printer's properties.

setting printer priorities

another technique you can use to help manage the flow of print jobs on your windows 2003 network is setting printer priorities. when more than one printer sends print jobs to the same print device , setting printer priorities may be useful.

if two printers are configured to use the same print device, and you configure one of these printers to have a higher priority than the other printer.then all print jobs from the higher priority printer will be sent to the print device before any print jobs from the lower priority printer are sent.

the highest printer priority is 99, and the lowest printer priority is 1. all printers have a priority of 1 by default.

scheduling printers

scheduling printers is a technique you can use to help manage the flow of print jobs on your windows 2003 network. scheduling a printer means assigning the hours a specific print device available for use by a specific printer.

when scheduling a printer the hours of availability apply only to the print device, not to the printer. this means that users can print to the printer at any time during the day. and the printer then spools the jobs to the hard disk. however the print jobs are sent to the print device only during the print device's hours of availability.

so why should you want to schedule a printer? well, suppose that you are the administrator for a small network that has 20 windows computers. the owner of the company recently brought a laser print device for network printing, and doesn't want to spend any more money on print devices. one of the employees occasionally generates a print jobs that is 500 to 600 pages long. this report ties up the one available print device for a long time, frustrating other employees. the large reports are for archival and reference purposes, and are not needed immediately.

you solve the problem by scheduling printers. first you create second printer that prints to the laser print device.the you schedule the new printer so that it only sends print jobs to the print devices during non business hours. you instruct the employee who creates the large print jobs to use the new printer for large print jobs. the result is that the employee can generates large print jobs at any time without inconveniencing other employees. the large print jobs are spooled to the hard disk, and then sent to the print device during non business hours.

configuring printer pools

when a printer has a multiple ports (and multiple print devices) assigned to it, this is called a printer pool. users print to a single printer, and the printer load balances its print jobs between the print devices assigned to it.

a printer pool is a useful tool when both of the following criteria met
  • all print devices assigned to the printer use the same print device driver. (usually this means that identical print devices are used)
  • all print devices assigned to the printer pool are located physically close to each other.

managing printing

printing terminology


a printer is the software interface between the windows 2003 operating system and the device that produces the printed 2003 calls a printer as a combination of a print queue (or print spooler) plus a driver for the device that produces printed output.

print device

in windows 2003 the term print device (or printing device) refers to the physical device that produces printed output - what is more commenly referred to as a " printer "

auditing and connecting to printers

there are two types of printers you can add
  • local printers
  • network printers
adding a printer on a remote computer
  • start windows explorer (select start - programms - accessories - windows - explorer)
  • in the left pane, click the + next to my network places. click the + next to entire network. click the + next to microsoft windows network. click the + next to the domain or workgroup that contains the computer on which you want to add a printer. click the + next tothe computer on which you want to add a printer.highlight the printers folder.
  • the contents of the printers folder on the remote computer appear in the right pane. to start the add printer wizard on the remote computer, double click add printer. follow the instruction presented earlier in this chapter to add a printer.
connecting to internet printers

an internet printer is a printer that is published (made available) on a web server for the purpose of making the printer available to client computers on the internet, client computers on your company's intranet or both.

you can access internet printers on a windows 2003 computer at http://server_name /printers

Friday, July 24, 2009

how to repair boot sector in xp

If your pc wont be able to boot from xp there might be a damaged boot sector or a missing or corrupt ntldr or files, to repair these items follow these steps.

To repair a damaged Boot Sector
  • go to the recovery console
  • type following command and press enter
  • fixboot
  • press Y and proceed
Note - the boot sector is written to the partition that's currently labeled as the C: drive

To replace damaged ntldr and

To replace damaged ntldr and you can copy fresh files from the XP CD using the COPY command. Boot with the XP CD and enter the Recovery Console.At the Command Prompt type the following (where "X" is your CD-Rom drive letter) allowing the files to overwrite the old files.
  • COPY X:\i386\NTLDR C:

how to format using recovery console

there is some commands you should know before format, these are

format for initialised format command
/q for quick format
/fs specify file system (FAT, FAT32, or NTFS)

So before using command select format drive, select quick format or full format, and file system.

For example if you put FORMAT C: /Q /FS:NTFS will quick formats C partition as NTFS

If you put FORMAT C: /FS:FAT32 will full format of C as FAT32

Note - If a file system is not specified, then the existing file system format is retained.

how to repair master boot record (MBR) in xp

a problem with the master boot record in a system may prevent the system from booting.MBR can be corrupted in several ways, it can corrupted by malicious code, by disk errors, or be overwritten by other boot loaders.but you can easily repair MBR using recovery console.go to the recovery console by either following ways from windows xp installation disk or Windows XP Recovery Console at startup (first have to install) for this example we get start from windows installation cd,
  • Start your pc in with CD-ROM support and windows installation cd on it.
  • When prompted, press R to repair a Windows XP installation.
  • If you repairing multiple operating systems, select the appropriate one (XP) from the menu. If you have only one operating system, enter 1 to select it.
  • Enter the administrator password if prompted
  • To fix the MBR, use the following command
  • fixmbr
  • Type y and ENTER to fix the MBR
  • Type exit and press enter to leave the recovery console and reboot system.

for additional info
to install recovery console in windows xp read this post

Monday, July 20, 2009

disable " compress old files " option in windows xp

have trouble when every time you clean-up your hard disk, wasting more time with compressing old files? want to know how to disable compressing old files, here's how

  • go to registry editor (click start- run- type regedit - press enter)
  • navigate to the following registry key
  • H_K_L_M \ \SOFTWARE \ Microsoft \ Windows \ CurrentVersion \Explorer\ VolumeCaches \ CompressOldFiles

  • delete the complete key of CompressOldFiles
  • exit the registry and run disk cleanup again
  • you will see that there is no more compressing old files, your problem is fixed.

also you can disable office setup files from the disk cleanup

just go to the registry key of

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\Curr entVersion\Explorer\VolumeCaches\Office Setup Files

and delete the key office setup files, that's it.

customise default view in word 2003

in some cases when you open a two-page-or-more Word document that is attached in Outlook e-mail, it shows up as two pages side by side instead of one page under the other one. how do you go back to the old way it used to display ?

here is the answer, follow these steps
  • open word 2003
  • click tools menu and select option
  • when option tabbed dialog box appears click general
  • uncheck the " allow starting in reading layout "
  • click ok and you are done.

create message rule in outlook 2003

Outlook 2003 allows you to create many different types of rules to help automate and organize your email. Once set, these rules enable Outlook to automatically perform such actions as the following

  • Flag messages from a specific person
  • Move messages from certain person to a special folder
  • Redirect messages based on subject
  • Display an alert message when an important message arrives
  • Assign a category based on the content of a message
  • Open or start a program after receiving a certain message
  • Filter unwanted or junk messages to specified folder
  • print messages containing specific words or phrases
For example we create message rule for Move messages from certain people to a special folder
  • Open outlook 2003
  • Now click rules and alert in tools menu
  • Click new rule button
  • Select move messages from someone to a folder in a step 1
  • In step 2 click people or distribution list
  • Type the name of certain person or select from list ( after type the name and click from button to select person or double click name from list)
  • Click Ok to select person.
  • Again in step 2 click “move it to specified folder”
  • Now click new button to add new folder, rename as you like and click ok.
  • Select the newly created folder and click ok
  • Click next
  • Be sure to select first two rules in select condition list, click next
  • Be sure to select first rule in select action list
  • In next area leave it as default and click next
  • Now click finish

You are successfully created new message rule,after now on the messages received from the person you selected are automatically moved to the folder you specified.

address list could not be displayed in outlook 2003

some time if you restore backup PST file outlook 2003 or attempt to address a new message from your Contacts you might have following error.

"The address list could not be displayed. The Contacts folder associated with this address list could not be opened; it may have been moved or deleted, or you do not have permissions. For information on how to remove this folder from the Outlook Address Book, see Microsoft Outlook Help"

as a result of this error you cannot enter email address while you composing new how do you fix this error ?, to fix this error you must remove and reinstall the Outlook Address do this please follow these steps.
  • Start Outlook 2003
  • On the Tools menu, click E-mail Accounts
  • Click View or change existing directories or address books, and then click Next
  • Click Outlook Address Book, and then click Remove
  • Click Yes when you receive the prompt to confirm the removal action
  • Now Click Add
  • Click Additional Address Books, and then click Next
  • Click Outlook Address Book, and then click Next
  • Click OK when you receive the message to restart Outlook 2003
  • Click Finish
  • Now exit from Outlook 2003
  • Restart Outlook
  • In the Folder list, right-click the folder that you want to use with the Address Book, and then click Properties
  • Click the Outlook Address Book tab
  • Click to select the Show this folder as an e-mail Address Book check box (if it is not already selected), and then click OK
you are done and your problem will be fixed.

Thursday, July 16, 2009

use command to see if windows activated or not

you can run a command to verify that the your windows is activated or not, to see your windows status, follow these steps.
  • click start
  • then click run
  • in the box enter below command
  • %systemroot%\system32\oobe\msoobe.exe /a (you can copy this command and paste directly to run command)
  • hit enter, and after few seconds the window will came up and shows your windows status.
this command is applicable for windows 2003 and windows xp.

what is "Other Operating System found" error

When you try to upgrade your Microsoft Windows 95-based, Microsoft Windows 98-based, or Microsoft Windows ME-based computer to Microsoft Windows XP, you may receive an error message that is similar to the following:

Error: Setup found some blocking issues.

Blocking issues Setup found some issues that will prevent you from upgrading your Windows Installation.

You must fix all of these issues before you can upgrade to Windows XP

"Other Operating System found"

The possibility for this errors are

* You previously installed Windows XP
* You uninstalled Windows XP
* Folders from the original Windows XP installation are still on your computer

there are several ways to resolve this issue

  • Verify hardware compatibility
Verify that any external devices that are connected to your computer are compatible with Windows XP. Remove any external devices if those devices are not compatible with Windows check device compatibility with Windows XP
please visit

  • Remove unknown devices that are listed in Device Manager.
  • Delete previous system installation files
  • Disable any antivirus software that is running on your computer
  • Create a temporary storage folder for any files from the original system installation that are still on your hard disk.
Run Windows upgrade again.

detailed view of recovery console commands


Use the attrib command together with one or more of the following parameters to change the attributes of a file or a folder:



+ Sets an attribute
- Resets an attribute
R Read-only file attribute
S System file attribute
H Hidden file attribute
C Compressed file attribute

You must set or clear at least one attribute.To view attributes, use the dir command.


Use this command to run commands that are specified in a text file. In the command syntax, inputfile specifies the text file that contains the list of commands to be run, and outputfile specifies the file that contains the output of the specified commands. If you do not specify an output file, the output appears on the screen.


Use this command for boot configuration and recovery. This command has the following options:

bootcfg /add
bootcfg /rebuild
bootcfg /scan
bootcfg /list
bootcfg /disableredirect
bootcfg /redirect [portbaudrate] | [useBiosSettings]
bootcfg /redirect com1 115200
bootcfg /redirect useBiosSettings

You can use the following options:

/add Adds a Windows installation to the boot menu list.
/rebuild Iterates through all Windows installations so that you can specify which installations to add.
/scan Scans all disks for Windows installations and displays the results so that you can specify which installations to add.
/default Sets the default boot entry.
/list Lists the entries already in the boot menu list.
/disableredirect Disables redirection in the boot loader.
/redirect Enables redirection in the boot loader, with the specified configuration.


Use the cd and chdir commands to change to a different folder. For example, you can use the following commands:
Type cd .. to change to the parent folder.
Type cd drive: to display the current folder in the specified drive.
Type cd without parameters to display the current drive and folder.
The chdir command treats spaces as delimiters. Because of this, you must put quotation marks ("") around a folder name that contains a space.

The following is an example:

cd "\windows\profiles\username\programs\start menu"
The chdir command works only in the system folders of the current installation of Windows, in removable media, in the root folder of any hard disk partition, or in the local installation sources.


chkdsk drive /p /r
The chkdsk command checks the specified drive and repairs or recovers the drive if the drive requires it. The command also marks any bad sectors and it recovers readable information.

You can use the following options:

/p Does an exhaustive check of the drive and corrects any errors.
/r Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information.

Note If you specify the /r option, the /p option is implied. When you specify the chkdsk command without arguments, the command checks the current drive with no options in effect.

When you run the chkdsk command, you must use the Autochk.exe file. CHKDSK automatically locates this file in the startup folder. If the Command Console was preinstalled, the startup folder is typically the Cmdcons folder. If CHKDSK cannot find Autochk.exe in the startup folder, CHKDSK tries to locate the Windows installation disc. If it cannot find the installation media, CHKDSK prompts you for the location of the Autochk.exe file.


Use this command to clear the screen.


copy source destination
Use this command to copy a file. In the command syntax, source specifies the file to copy and destination specifies the folder or file name for the new file. You cannot use wildcard characters indicated by an asterisk (*), and you cannot copy a folder. If you copy a compressed file from the Windows installation disc, the file is automatically decompressed while it is copied.

The source of the file can be removable media, any folder in the system folders of the current Windows installation, the root of any drive, the local installation sources, or the Cmdcons folder.

If destination is unspecified, the default destination is the current folder. If the file already exists, you are prompted whether you want the copied file to overwrite the existing file. The destination cannot be removable media.


del drive: path filename
delete drive: path filename
Use this command to delete a file. In the command syntax, drive: path filename specifies the file that you want to delete. The delete command works only in the system folders of the current Windows installation, in removable media, in the root folder of any hard disk partition, or in the local installation sources. The delete command does not accept wildcard characters.


dir drive: path filename
Use this command to display a list of files and subfolders in a folder. In the command syntax, drive: path filename specifies the drive, folder, and files to list. The dir command lists all files, including hidden files and system files. Files can have the following attributes:
D Directory
H Hidden file
S System file
E Encrypted
R Read-only file
A Files ready for archiving
C Compressed
P Reparse point
The dir command works only in the system folders of the current Windows installation, in removable media, in the root folder of any hard disk partition, or in the local installation sources.


disable servicename
Use this command to disable a Windows system service or a driver. In the command syntax, servicename specifies the name of the service or driver that you want to disable.

Use the listsvc command to display all services or drivers that are eligible to be disabled. The disable command prints the old start type of the service before resetting the start type to SERVICE_DISABLED. Record the old start type if you must enable the service again.

The disable command displays the following start_type values:


diskpart /add/deletedevice_name drive_name partition_name size
Use this command to manage the partitions on your hard disk volumes. You can use the following options:

/add Creates a new partition.
/delete Deletes an existing partition.
device_name The name of the device that is used to create a new partition.
drive_name A drive-letter-based name, for example D:.
partition_name The partition-based name for deleting an existing partition.
size The size of the new partition in megabytes.
You can determine the device name from the output of the MAP command, for example, \Device\HardDisk0. You can use the partition name instead of the drive name argument, for example, \Device\HardDisk0\Partition1. If you use no arguments, a user interface for managing your partitions appears.


enable servicename start_type
You can use the enable command to enable a Windows system service or a driver.


Use the listsvc command to display all eligible services or drivers to enable. The enable command prints the old start type of the service before it is reset to the new value. It is a good idea to note the old value, in case you have to restore the start type of the service.

Valid options for start_type are as follows:
If you do not specify a new start type, the enable command prints the old start type for you.


Use the exit command to exit the Recovery Console and restart your computer.


expand source [/F:filespec] [destination] [/y]
expand source [/F:filespec] /D
Use this command to expand a file. In the command syntax, source specifies the name of the file to be expanded and destination specifies the folder for the new file. If you do not specify a destination, the command uses the current folder by default. You cannot include wildcard characters.

You can use the following options:

/y Do not prompt before overwriting an existing file.
/f:filespec Identifies the files to be expanded.
/d Do not expand; display only a directory of the files in the source.
If the source contains more than one file, you must use the /f:filespec parameter to find the specific files to be expanded. You can include wildcard characters.

The destination can be any folder in the system folders of the current Windows installation, in the root of the drive, in the local installation sources, or in the Cmdcons folder. The destination cannot be removable media, and the destination file cannot be read-only. Use the attrib command to remove the read-only attribute.

Unless you use the /y option, the expand command prompts you if the destination file already exists.


fixboot drive name:
Use this command to write the new Windows boot sector code on the system partition. In the command syntax, drive name is the drive letter where the boot sector will be written. This command fixes damage in the Windows boot sector. This command overrides the default setting, which writes to the system boot partition. The fixboot command is supported only on x86-based computers.


fixmbr device name
Use this command to repair the MBR of the boot partition. In the command syntax, device name is an optional device name that specifies the device that requires a new MBR. Use this command if a virus has damaged the MBR and Windows cannot start.

Warning This command can damage your partition tables if a virus is present or if a hardware problem exists. If you use this command, you may create inaccessible partitions. We recommend that you run antivirus software before you use this command.

You can obtain the device name from the output of the map command. If you do not specify a device name, the MBR of the boot device is repaired,

for example:

fixmbr \device\harddisk2
If the fixmbr command detects an invalid or non-standard partition table signature, fixmbr command prompts you for permission before it rewrites the MBR. The fixmbr command is supported only on x86-based computers.


format drive: /Q /FS:file-system
Use this command to format the specified drive to the specified file system. In the command syntax, /Q performs a quick format of the drive, drive is the drive letter of the partition to format, and /FS:file-system specifies the type of file system to use such as FAT, FAT32, or NTFS. If you do not specify a file system, the existing file system format is used if it is available.


The logon command lists all detected installations of Windows and then requests the local administrator password for the copy of Windows that you want to log on to. If your first three tries to log on fail, the console closes, and your computer restarts.


map arc
Use this command to list drive letters, file system types, partition sizes, and mappings to physical devices. In the command syntax, the arc parameter tells the map command to use ARC paths instead of Windows Device paths.


The md and mkdir commands create new folders. Wildcard characters are not supported. The mkdir command works only in the system folders of the current installation of Windows, in removable media, in the root folder of any hard disk partition, or in the local installation sources.


more filename
Use this command to display a text file to the screen.


Although the Help file states otherwise, the net command is not usable from the Recovery Console. The protocols stack is not loaded for the Recovery Console. Therefore, there is no networking function available.


Use rd and rmdir commands to delete a folder. These commands work only in the system folders of the current Windows installation, in removable media, in the root folder of any hard disk partition, or in the local installation sources.


Use the ren and rename commands to rename a file.

Note You cannot specify a new drive or path for the renamed file. These commands work only in the system folders of the current Windows installation, in removable media, in the root folder of any hard disk partition, or in the local installation sources.


You can use the set to display or modify four environment options.
AllowWildCards = FALSE AllowAllPaths = FALSE AllowRemovableMedia = FALSE NoCopyPrompt = FALSE
For more information about how to use the set command, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
235364 ( ) Description of the SET command in Recovery Console


The systemroot command sets the current working folder to the %SystemRoot% folder of the Windows installation that you are currently logged on to.


type filename
Use the type command to display a text file.

overview of recovery console

When you use the Windows Recovery Console you can perform the following actions.

Use, copy, rename, or replace operating system files and folders ,
Enable or disable service or device startup the next time that you start your computer ,Repair the file system boot sector or the master boot record (MBR)
Create and format partitions on drives.You must be logged on as an administrator or a member of the Administrators group in order to run the computer in Recovery Console.Only an administrator can obtain access to the Windows Recovery Console. This prevents unauthorized users from using any NTFS volume.

Restrictions and limitations of the Recovery Console

When you use the Windows Recovery Console, you can use only the following items.
  • The root folder
  • The %SystemRoot% folder and the subfolders of the Windows installation that you are currently logged on to
  • The Cmdcons folder
  • The removable media drives such as the CD drive or the DVD drive
Note - If you try to access other folders, you may receive an "Access Denied" error message. This does not necessarily mean that data that is contained in those folders is lost or corrupted. It only means that the folder is unavailable while you are running the Windows Recovery Console. Also, when you are using the Windows Recovery Console, you cannot copy a file from the local hard disk to a floppy disk. However, you can copy a file from a floppy disk or from a CD-ROM to a hard disk, and you can copy a file from one hard disk to another hard disk.

Reminder - If you use an incorrect password three times in Recovery console, the Windows Recovery Console closes. Also, if the Security Accounts Manager (SAM) database is missing or damaged, you cannot use the Windows Recovery Console because you cannot be authenticated correctly. After you enter your password and the Windows Recovery Console starts, type Exit to restart the computer.When you use Windows XP Professional, you can set group policies to enable automatic administrative logon.

Available commands within Windows Recovery Console

The following commands are available within the Windows Recovery Console.The commands are not case-sensitive.please keep in mind that Some of these commands can make your system inoperable. Read the whole explanation of any command before you enter it onto the command line.

commands are
  • attrib
  • batch
  • bootcfg
  • cd
  • chdir
  • chkdsk
  • cls
  • copy
  • del
  • delete
  • dir
  • disable
  • diskpart
  • enable
  • exit
  • expand
  • fixboot
  • fixmbr
  • format
  • help
  • listsvc
  • logon
  • md
  • more
  • mkdir
  • more
  • map
  • net
  • rd
  • ren
  • rmdir
  • rename
  • set
  • systemroot
  • type

Start Recovery Console from the Windows XP CD-ROM

If you have not preinstalled the Windows Recovery Console, you can start the computer and use the Recovery Console directly from your original Windows XP installation start recovery console from CD follow these steps.
  • Insert the Windows XP CD into your CD drive and restart your computer. If you are prompted, select any options required to start (boot) from the CD.
  • When the text-based part of Setup begins, follow the prompts. Select the repair or recover option by pressing R.
  • If you have a dual-boot or multiboot system, select the installation that you want to access from the Recovery Console.
  • When you are prompted, type the Administrator password.
  • At the command prompt, type Recovery Console commands, you want to use.
  • At any time, you can type Help for a list of available commands.
  • At any time, you can type Help command name for help on a specific command. For example, you can type help attrib to display the help on the attributes command.
  • At any time, you can exit Windows Recovery Console by typing Exit at the command line.

how to install recovery console in windows xp

If your computer starts Windows, you can add the Windows XP Recovery Console as a startup option from the Windows environment. To install the Recovery Console as a startup option, follow these steps:
  • login to the windows
  • insert the Windows CD into your CD drive
  • Click Start and click Run
  • Type the following command
  • X:\i386\winnt32.exe /cmdcons (where X: is the CD Drive letter), and then press ENTER on your keyboard. Note - There is a space before /cmdcons
  • Click OK and follow the instructions to finish Setup. Note - This adds the Windows Recovery Console to the Windows Startup folder.
  • Restart your computer and select the Recovery Console option from the list of available operating systems.

how to Configure automatic administrator logon for Recovery Console

To set an automatic administrator logon for the Recovery Console, complete the following steps.please note that you must have administrator privilege in order to complete these task.
  • First Login as an Administrator
  • Go to the Control Panel (Click Start, and then click Control Panel)
  • Click Switch to Classic View in the right pane, double-click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Local Security Policy
  • Expand Security Settings, expand Local Policies, and then click Security Options
  • Double-click the Recovery Console: Allow automatic administrative logon policy, and then set it to Enable
After you set enable policy is effective immediately.Make sure that you reopen the Local Security Policy snap-in to make sure that the effective setting for the policy is "Enabled." after you you start to Recovery Console, you are not prompted for a password

After completion of this process the registry key of
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Setup\RecoveryConsole , DWORD value data is set to 1

Tuesday, July 14, 2009

testing a TCP/IP configuration

after configuring TCP/IP and restarting the computer, you should use ipconfig and ping command prompts tools to test the configuration and connections to other TCP/IP hosts and networks. such testing helps ensure that TCP/IP is functioning properly.

using ipconfig

you use the ipconfig tool to verify the TCP/IP configuration parameters on a host. this helps to determine whether the configuration is initialized or if a duplicate IP address exists. use the ipconfig tool with the /all switch to verify configuration information.

using ping

the ping tool is a diagnose tool that you can use to test TCP/IP configurations and diagnose connection failures. after you have verified the TCP/IP configuration, use the ping tool to determine whether a particular TCP/IP host is available and funtional. to test connectivity use the ping tool with the following syntax in command prompt:
  1. first go to the command prompt.
  2. then type ipconfig or ipconfig /all and press enter.
  3. then type ping (loopback address) to check loopback working properly.
  4. then use ping ip address of the computer (eg: ping to check NIC (network interface card) working properly.
  5. then use ping command to ip address of default gateway (router) to check connectivity to gateway.
  6. then use ping address of the remote host (this can be pc in the network or internet) to check network working properly.

using automatic private ip addressing (APIPA)

the windows xp professional implementation of TCP/IP supports automatic assignment of IP address for simple LAN -based network configurations. this addressing mechanism is an extension of dynamic IP address assignment for LAN adaptors, enabling configuration of IP address without using static IP address assignment or installing the DCHP service. automatic private IP addressing is enabled by default in windows xp professional so that home users and small business users can create a funtioning, single subnet, TCP/IP based network without having to configure the TCP/IP protocol manually or set up a DHCP server.

the process for the automatic private IP addressing feature
  • windows xp professional TCP/IP attempts to find a DHCP server on the attached network to obtain a dynamically assigned IP adrress.
  • in the absence of a DHCP server during startup (for example, if the server is down for maintanance or repairs) the client cannot obtain an IP address.
  • automatic private IP addressing generates an IP address in the form of 169.254.x.y (where x.y is the client,s unique identifier) and a subnet mask of .

obtaining an ip address automatically

if a server running the DHCP service is available on the network, it can automatically assign TCP/IP configuration information to the DCHP client, you can configure any clients running windows xp professional, windows 95, and windows 98 to obtain TCP/IP configuration information automatically from the DHCP service. this can simplify administration and ensure correct configuration information.

you can use the DHCP service to provide clients with TCP/IP configuration information automatically. however you must configure a computer as a DHCP client before it can interact with the DHCP service.

using a static IP address

by default client computers, for example those running windows xp professional, windows 2000, windows ME, windows NT, microsoft windows 98, or microsoft windows 95 obtain TCP/IP configuration information automatically from the DHCP service. however even in DHCP enabled environment you should assign a static IP address to selected network computers. for example, the computer running DHCP service cannot be a DHCP client, so it must have a static IP address. if the DHCP service is not available you can also configure TCP/IP to use static IP address. for each network adaptor card that uses TCP/IP in a computer, you can configure an IP address, subnet mask and default gateway.

understanding ip addresses

each IP address consists of a network ID and a host ID. the network ID, also known as the network address, identifies the systems that are located on the same physical network. all computers in the same physical network must have the same network ID, and the network ID must be unique to the internetwork. the host ID, also known as the host address, identifies each TCP/IP host within a network.

IP addresses are logical 32-bit numbers that are broken down into four 8 bit fields known as octets. microsoft TCP/IP supports class A, B and C addresses. the class addresses define which bits are used for network ID and which bits are used for the host ID.

Class A

the first network ID is and the last is , this allows for 126 networks and 16,777,214 hosts per network. the class A adress 127.x.x.x is reserved for loopback testing and interprocess communications on the local computer. for class A addresses, the network ID is laways the first octet in the address and the host ID is the last three octets.

Class B

the first network ID is and the last is , this allows for 16,384 networks and 65,534 hosts per network. for class B addresses the network ID is always the first two octets in the address and host ID is the last two octets.

Class C

the first network ID is and the last is , this allows for 2,097,152 networks and 254 hosts per network. for class C addresses, the network ID is always the first three octets in the address and the host ID is the last octet.

options for configuring a static TCP/IP address

IP address - a logical 32-bit address that identifies a TCP/IP host. each network adpter card in a computer running TCP/IP require a unique IP address, such as , each address has two parts: a network ID, which identifies all hosts on the same physical network, and a host ID which identifies a host on the network. in this example the network ID is 192.168.0 and the host ID is 108.

subnet mask - subnets divide a large network into multiple physical networks connected with routers.a subnet mask blocks out part of the IP address so that TCP/IP can distinguish the network ID from the host ID. when TCP/IP hosts try to communicate, the subnet mask determine whether the destination host is on a local or remote network. to communicate on a local network, computers must have the same subnet mask.

default gateway - the intermediate device on a local network that stores network ID,s of other networks in the enterprise or internet. to communicate with a host on another network, configure an IP address for the default gateway. TCP/IP sends packets for remote networks to the default gateway (if no other route is configured) which then forwards the packets to other gateways until the packet is delivered to a gateway connected to specified destination.

Monday, July 13, 2009

increase download connection

Increase Internet Download Connections

Increase Simultaneous Internet Download Connections
Increases the number of allowed simultaneous connections to ten (10).

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]
Registry Key: HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings

Modify/Create the Value Data Type(s) and Value Name(s) as detailed below.
Data Type: REG_DWORD [Dword Value] // Value Name: MaxConnectionsPer1_0Server
Setting for Value Data: [0000000a]
Modify/Create the Value Data Type(s) and Value Name(s) as detailed below.
Data Type: REG_DWORD [Dword Value] // Value Name: MaxConnectionsPerServer
Setting for Value Data: [0000000a]
Exit Registry and Reboot

Enable/Disable Run Commands Specific to the Registry
This tweak controls the use of the Run command on the local machine.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]
Registry Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\ Policies\Explorer
Create a DWORD value for each Run function that will be disabled.

Modify/Create the Value Name [DisableLocalMachineRun] according to the Value Data listed below.
Data Type: REG_DWORD [Dword Value] // Value Name: DisableLocalMachineRun

Modify/Create the Value Name [DisableLocalMachineRunOnce] according to the Value Data listed below.
Data Type: REG_DWORD [Dword Value] // Value Name: DisableLocalMachineRunOnce

Modify/Create the Value Name [DisableCurrentUserRun] according to the Value Data listed below.
Data Type: REG_DWORD [Dword Value] // Value Name: DisableCurrentUserRun

Modify/Create the Value Name [DisableCurrentUserRunOnce] according to the Value Data listed below.
Data Type: REG_DWORD [Dword Value] // Value Name: DisableCurrentUserRunOnce

Setting for Value Data: [0 = Disabled / 1 = Enabled]
Exit Registry and Reboot

Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Local Policies\Security Options

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\SeCEdit\Reg Values\MACHINE/System/CurrentControlSet/Control/Lsa/CrashOnAuditFail

speedup start menu

to speedup start menu speed carefully follow below steps.
  1. Open the Start menu, click on Run, then type regedit and click OK.
  2. Find the following registry key:
    HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop
  3. Find the string value MenuShowDelay, then right-click Modify and edit the value.
  4. Change the default value (which is 400) to something lower. The lower the number the faster it will open.

increase computer startup speed

One of the Main Reason that slow down the startup speed is the "Huge list of Startup Programmes". Some programme by default create a startup entry, such as Yahoo Messenger, Windows Live Messenger Skype etc.. It is not possible to find all your startup programme if you Go Start > Programmes > Startup. If you can disable unwanted startup programmes, your computer's start up speed will increase. please do as follows.

Press Win Key + R or Start > Run

Type msconfig presss ok

'System Configuration Utility' will open. Click on "Startup" Tab
That's where you will see the huge list of Start up Programme. You can get more detail of a Particular Programme by looking at Command and Location

What to Disable and What not to Disable?

In fact you can disable all Programme, But we recommand you to keep the Programme such as Antivirus, Spy ware removal Programme. If you have Norton Anti-vius Programme installed in your computer.
Click on Service Tab

Check "Hide Microsoft Srevices" Now Disable all the service, except the service you want to run background when computer start up such Antivirus, Spyware Removal and Firewall Software.

After you have completed the work with disabling start up Programme and services, Press Ok. You will be asked to restart the Computer. When you start the computer next time, you will get Notification window about your "System Configuration Utility". You 'check' not to show this notification again and press ok. That's it.

how to disable chkdsk at startup

did your pc try to scan your hard disk every time you restart or after power on the cpu,but sometime you proceed with the scan there is no errors displaying the hard you want to stop this annoying process? then follow these steps.

  • first go to the command prompt
  • If you have drive C: as your hard drive
  • then run the command to disable chkdsk from scanning C: drive would be chkntfs /x c:
  • If you have 2 drive, C and D, you can disable chkdsk with the command of chkntfs /x c: d:
The chkntfs utility works by modifying the BootExcecute value in the system registry. The BootExecute value is located in the following registry key:


The default value is for BootExecute is autocheck autochk *. When you use the /x switch, it will add a /k parameter prior to the asterisk. The /k parameter excludes volumes from being checked for the presence of a dirty bit.

For example, if you run the command chkntfs /x c: in command prompt. This command would modify this registry entry to autocheck autochk /k:c *

after completing above process successfully your problem will be solved.

Sunday, July 12, 2009

problems while deleting a file

have you facing a problems while deleting the files that you dont want anymore? displaying errors when you try to delete them or rename just like below.
  • Cannot delete file: Access is denied
  • There has been a sharing violation.
  • The source or destination file may be in use.
  • The file is in use by another program or user.
  • Make sure the disk is not full or write-protected and that the file is not currently in use.
with the software called unlocker you can easily delete those files that you dont want to use.this step by step guide shows how to use unlocker in your pc.
  • First install unlocker to your pc
  • Then Simply right click the folder or file and select Unlocker
  • If the folder or file is locked, a window listing of lockers will appear
  • Simply click Unlock All and you are done!
you can download unlocker in

Saturday, July 11, 2009

understanding local groups

a local group is a collection of user accounts on a computer. use local groups to assign permissions to resources residing on the computer on which the local group is created. windows xp professional creates local groups in the local security database.

preparing to use local groups

guidelines for using local groups include the following
  • use local groups on computers that do not belong to a domain
you can use local groups only on the computer on which you create them. although local groups are available on member servers and domain computers running windows 2000 server, do not use local groups on computers that are part of a domain. using local groups on domain computers prevents you from centralizing group administration. local groups do not appear in the active directory service, and you must administer them separately for each computers.
  • you can assign permissions to local groups to access only the resources on the computer on which you create the local groups.
note - you cannot create local groups on domain controllers because domain controllers cannot have a security database that is independent of the database in active directory.

membership rules for local groups include following
  • local groups can contain local user accounts from the computer on which you create the local groups.
  • local groups cannot belong to any other group.

understanding groups

a group is a collection of user accounts. groups simplify administration by allowing you to assign permissions and rights to a group of users rather than to each user account individually.
  • groups are collection of user accounts
  • members receive permissions given to groups
  • users can be members of multiple groups
  • groups can be members of other groups
permissions control what users can do with a resource such as a folder, file or printer. when you assign permissions, you allow users to gain access to a resource and you define the type of access that they have. fro example, if several users need to read the same file, you can add their user accounts to a group and then give the group permission to read file. rights allow users to perform system tasks, such as changing the time on a computer and backing up or restoring files.

password requirenments

to protect access to the computer, every user account should have a password. consider the following guidelines for passwords.
  • always assign a password to the administrator account to prevent unauthorized access to the account.
  • determine whether the administrator or the users will control passwords. you can assign unique passwords to user accounts and prevent users from changing them, or you can allow users to enter their own passwords the first time they log on. in most cases users should control their passwords.
  • use passwords that are hard to guess. for example avoid using passwords with an obvious association, such as a family members name.
  • passwords can contain up to 128 characters, a minimum length of 8 characters is recommend.
  • include both uppercase and lowercase letters (unlike user names, user passwords are case sensitive) numerals and the valid non-alphanumeric characters.

naming conventions

a naming convention is an organizations established standard for identified users in the domain. following a consistent naming convention helps administrators and users remember logon names. it also makes it easier for administrators to locate specific user accounts to add them to groups or perform account administration.

naming convention guidelines
  • create unique user logon names - local user account names must be unique on the computer on which you create the local account. user logon names for domain user accounts must be unique to the directory.
  • use a maximum of 20 characters -user account names can contain up to 20 uppercase or lowercase characters. the field accepts more than 20 characters, but windows xp professional recognizes only the first 20
  • remember that user logon names are not case sensitive - you can use combination of special and alphanumeric characters to establish unique user accounts. user logon names are not case sensitive, but windows xp professional preserves the case for display purposes.
  • avoid characters that are not valid -the following characters are not valid: " / \ [ ] : ; | - , + * ? < >
  • accommodate employees with duplicate names - if two users have the same name, you could create a user logon name consisting of the first name, the last initial and additional letters from the last name to differentiate the users. for example if two user are named john evans, you could create one user account logon as johne and the other as johnev. you could also number each user logon name-for example, johne 1 and johne 2.
  • identify the type of employee - some organizations prefer to identify temporary employees in their user accounts. you could add a T and a dash front of the users logon name (T-johne) or use parenthecs at the end- for example, johne(temp)
  • rename the administrator and guest built-in user accounts - you should rename the administrator and guest accounts to provide greater security.

domain user accounts

domain user accounts allow you to log on to the domain and access resources anywhere on the network. when you log on, you provide your logon information-your user name and password. microsoft windows 2000 server uses this logon information to authenticate your identity and build and access token that contains your user information and security settings. the access token identifies you to the computers in the domain on which you try to access resources. the access token is valid throughtout the logon session.

characteristics of domain user accounts
  • provide access to network resources
  • provide access token for authentication
  • created in active directory of domain controller

local user accounts

local user accounts allow users to log on only to the computer on which the local user account has been created and to access resources on only that computer. when you create a local user account, windows xp professional creates the account only in that computers security database, called the local security database. windows xp professional uses the local security database to authenticate the local user account, which allows the user to log on to that computer. windows xp professional does not replicate local user account information to any other computer.

characteristics of local user accounts
  • provide access to resources on the local computer
  • created in local security database (LSD)
  • created in computers which are in workgroups

Friday, July 10, 2009

overview of internet explorer 8

Microsoft Windows Internet Explorer 8 is the next version of the world’s most popular browser that has been built from the ground up to be the best browser for the way people really use the Web. Faster, easier and safer than ever before, Internet Explorer 8 optimizes developer and end-user experiences to provide a window to the Web of online services.

note - now here comes the genuine story again, you cant use this in a non genuine windows, in order to install IE 8 you must verify that you using genuine products.

Following are brief descriptions of the new Internet Explorer 8.

Smart Address Bar

The Smart Address Bar makes it easier for people to locate the sites they want to visit. It does this by efficiently matching what a consumer types into the Address Bar with titles in their History and Favorites, without duplicates.

Tab Groups

Tab Groups allow consumers to quickly discern which tabs have related content. When clicking on a link within one tab spawns another, the new tab is placed next to the originating tab, and both tabs are marked with a color.

Redesigned “New Tab” Page

The “New Tab” Page in Internet Explorer 8 has been redesigned to allow people to perform common tasks by clicking on links on the page.

Reopen Last Browsing Session

For those who accidentally close the browser or experience a crash, Internet Explorer 8 enables people to reopen their last browsing session from the most recently closed instance of Internet Explorer 8.

Enhanced Find On Page

Find On Page functionality has been enhanced to improve how consumers search for text on Web pages.

Result count

The enhanced Find On Page functionality shows how many places the search text appears on the page.

Result highlighting

The enhanced Find On Page functionality makes it so users can locate an item at a glance since it highlights all places on the page where the search text appears.

Simplified Internet Explorer Administration Kit

The Internet Explorer Administration Kit helps IT professionals easily configure deployment settings, and now has Favorites customization and the ability to import Accelerators.

Group Policy enhancements

Internet Explorer 8 allows IT administrators to control and configure browser features including Accelerators and Web Slices with more than 140 new Group Policy settings in Internet Explorer 8, bringing the total to nearly 1,500, to ease browser deployment, configuration and customization. There are multiple new Group Policy Objects in areas such as Connection limits, InPrivate, Compatibility View and SmartScreen actions.

Developer tools

Developer tools enable developers to quickly debug HTML, CSS and JScript in a visual environment. These tools have been built directly into Internet Explorer 8 with expanded functionality including a helpful menu option for choosing which application to use when viewing a Web page’s source. Developers can quickly identify and resolve issues because of the deep insight the tool provides into the DOM.


Accelerators give people easy access to the online services they care about most from any page they visit. Meanwhile, developers gain an easy way to extend the reach of their online services. Accelerators also allow users to browse faster by eliminating most of the clicks required to access desired content and services.

Web Slices

With Web Slices, people can see the information they want to see most often without going away from the page they are on, and developers can mark parts of Web pages as Web Slices and enable users to easily monitor the information they most frequently browse to, all while they move about the Web. Web Slices appear in the Favorites bar, where people can identify updated sites when in bold. From there, they can see a rich Web Slice visualization of their content with easy access back to the source Web page.

Instant Search Box

The enhanced Instant Search Box in Internet Explorer 8 is more helpful, making it easier for people to find content of interest and increasing the relevancy of search results. As users type a search term, they can see real-time search suggestions, including images and rich text, from their chosen search provider. There is a quick pick menu at the bottom of the Search box, enabling people to toggle back and forth between their favorite Web sites and search providers’ Search Suggestions with a simple mouse click. In addition, the enhanced Instant Search Box presents results from the user’s own Favorites and browsing History.


InPrivate helps to protect people’s data and privacy from being retained locally on the PC they are using. This protects against third parties who might be in a position to track a consumers’ online activities. Consumers have the ability to use either of the features (InPrivate Blocking or InPrivate Filtering) independently.

InPrivate Browsing

When activated, InPrivate Browsing helps ensure that History, temporary Internet files and cookies are not recorded on a PC after browsing. When in InPrivate Browsing, toolbars and extensions are automatically disabled, and browsing History is automatically deleted when the browser is closed.

InPrivate Filtering

InPrivate Filtering helps protect privacy by enabling the consumer to filter content coming from third parties that are in a position to track and aggregate their online behavior. Users are provided with notice, choice and control of which third parties to allow and which ones to filter.

Compatibility View

Internet Explorer 8 provides people with an easy way to fix display problems such as out-of-place menus, images and text with a Compatibility View button that displays those pages as they were designed to be viewed. Some Web sites that are designed for older browsers may not display correctly in Internet Explorer 8, which by default renders content in the most standards-compliant way possible.

Compatibility View list

Those using Internet Explorer 8 can choose to receive a list of major sites that are best viewed in Compatibility View. When navigating to a site on the list, Internet Explorer 8 will automatically display the site in Compatibility View without requiring the user to press the Compatibility View button.

Crash recovery

In Internet Explorer 8, if a tab does crash, it is automatically restored and reloaded, and any information the user may have already entered on the page (such as when writing an e-mail or filling out a form) is restored.

Delete Browsing History

Internet Explorer 8 enhances the Delete Browsing History feature by providing the ability to delete some cookies, History and other data while preserving cookies, History and other data for favorite sites.

SmartScreen Filter

Built upon the Microsoft Phishing Filter, the SmartScreen Filter helps protect customers against a broader set of phishing threats and helps protect from sites that attempt to download malicious software. The SmartScreen Filter is easy to use with enhanced user interface and warning messages to reduce users’ click-through to confirmed sites.

ClickJacking prevention

New in Internet Explorer 8 is a feature that allows Web site content owners to put a tag in a page header that will help prevent ClickJacking, a type of cross-site request forgery. ClickJacking encompasses multiple techniques that can be used to trick Web users into unwittingly clicking an obscured or hidden Web element, usually resulting in an unwanted transaction. Internet Explorer 8 will detect sites that insert the tag and give users a new error screen indicating that the content host has chosen not to allow their content to be framed, while giving users the option to open the content in a new window.

Cross-site scripting (XSS) filter

Internet Explorer 8 helps protect customers and systems from attacks that can lead to information disclosure, cookie stealing, account or identity theft, or other attempts to masquerade as the user without permission. XSS attacks have emerged as a leading exploit against Web servers and Web applications. Internet Explorer 8 has an XSS filter that is able to dynamically detect type-1 XSS (reflection) attacks.

Data Execution Prevention (DEP)

DEP, on by default in Internet Explorer 8 in Windows Vista Service Pack 1, is a security feature that can help prevent damage to computers from viruses and other security threats by preventing certain types of code from writing to executable memory space.

Per-site ActiveX

Per-site ActiveX reduces attack surface by providing an implicit SiteLock (a tool for restricting access to a specific domain) so that controls may only run from their point of installation by default. This enables users and administrators to manage where a given ActiveX Control is allowed to run.

Per-user ActiveX

Per-user ActiveX allows developers to write their ActiveX Controls so that when a user installs them, they are installed only for that user and not for all users on the system, providing a level of protection for other users against malicious or badly written controls.

overview of opera web browser

Opera is a another web browser that providing more features, now you can find opera 10 beta, here are some of the features available in opera 10.

Opera Turbo for fast browsing on slow connections

Opera Turbo is a compression technology that provides significant improvements in browsing speeds over limited-bandwidth connections like a crowded Wi-Fi in a cafe or browsing through your mobile phone while commuting.

New enhanced tabs and sleek design

Opera has always been the pioneer for how to deal with tabs in your browser. In Opera 10, we introduce a resizable tab bar. Drag the handle underneath the tabs to reveal thumbnails of your open Web pages. And, because great features should come in beautiful packages: well-known designer Jon Hicks created a whole new look for Opera 10.

Speed Dial your way

Customize your Speed Dial to fit your own needs. Click the configure button and choose from 4 to 25 favorite Web sites for quick access every time you open a new tab. You can also add a custom background so that you feel right at home.

Web integration

If you use a Web mail service as your default mail client, you can tell Opera 10 to do the same. Clicking on e-mail addresses or "Send by Mail" in Opera will open the compose page from your Web mail service provider. The same is true with the Feed reader — you can now also add any RSS/atom feed into your favorite online feed reader from within Opera 10.

Resizable search field

Have a clearer view of what you are about to search by simply expanding the size of the search field — because many of life's questions require more than two words of space.

40% faster engine and cutting-edge Web standards support

the new Opera Presto 2.2 engine in Opera 10 to be much faster on resource-intensive pages such as Gmail and Facebook. In addition, with an Acid3 100/100 score, Web Fonts support, RGBA/HSLA color and SVG improvements, Opera 10 beta is ready for the next generation of Web applications. Learn more...

Inline spell-checker

Write freely in your Facebook wall, blog, or Web mail. Opera 10 beta underlines any misspelled words, so you can express yourself without reservation. By using the popular Hunspell dictionary format, you can be sure you’ll always have the most complete and updated list of all languages.


Opera 10 beta makes it easier than ever to stay up-to-date with the latest version. With auto-update you will be able to choose completely automatic updates or have the option of being notified when an update is ready to install. As always with Opera, it is your choice.

E-mail your way

Opera Mail can now send rich text messages including inline images, styled text, links, and/or custom HTML. You can also choose to have messages deleted from your POP server after a preset number of days, so you can keep your Web space under control.

Automated Crash Reporting

Opera is designed to restart and recover all your tabs if a crash occurs. But, now you can easily send us a crash report to help us continue to make Opera the most stable browser around.

how to subscribe to a website

if you find some useful information in website or blogsite imagine you want to get all of that sites posts, you can subscribe to that site, most of website has feed link or subscription link ( similar to subscribe to this blog or post )

for example this blogsite has subscription link, when someone want to subscribe the user will redirect to this sites feedburner page, in there you can select your news readers ( eg - google users can subscribe via google reader, yahoo users can subscribe via my yahoo )

when contents of the blogsite gets new posts the readers will automatically recieve the new posts. therefore users can find what they want in a single location.

overview of safari web browser

Safari is known as worlds fastest web browser, the latest version of safari 4 has more cool features, this one is also available free to are some features of safari 4.

Top Sites

Thanks to Top Sites, you can enjoy a stunning, at-a-glance preview of your favorite websites without lifting a finger. Safari 4 tracks the sites you browse and ranks your favorites, presenting up to 24 thumbnails on a single page. You can even customize the display by pinning a favorite site to a specific location in the grid. That locks it into position, so you know just where to find it every time you open Top Sites.Wonder which sites have changed since your last visit? Sites with a star in the upper-right corner have new content. A single click opens the page and updates its thumbnail. Whenever you want to return to your ever-evolving Top Sites page, just click the new Top Sites button in the bookmarks bar.

Cover Flow

Cover Flow offers a highly visual way of reviewing your site history and bookmarked sites, presenting full-page previews of the websites that look exactly as they did when you last visited them.

One look is all you need to recognize the site you want to visit. Simply flip through website previews in Cover Flow the same way you flip through album art in iTunes. Directional arrows let you browse forward and back. Or you can quickly flip through multiple sites using the slider. And when you find the site you want, simply click to open it.

Full History Search

With Full History Search and Cover Flow, what you see is where you went. Safari introduces a dramatic new way to revisit sites, letting you flip through full-page previews of the sites you visited in the past. You may not have total recall, but Safari does, automatically storing all the text and a thumbnail of every page in your history. That makes it easy for Safari to get results even if you remember little about the site you’re searching for.

Just type a word or phrase in the History Search field in Top Sites, and Safari quickly presents you with a list of possibilities. In fact, you can search for anything that was on a page you visited, even photo captions. To jog your memory, Safari presents the sites it finds in Cover Flow, giving you the opportunity to spot the right site on sight.

Nitro Engine

Still the world’s fastest web browser, Safari outraces Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Chrome. On even the most demanding Web 2.0 applications, Safari delivers blazingly fast performance thanks to the industry’s most advanced rendering technologies.

Using the new Nitro Engine, for example, Safari executes JavaScript nearly 8 times faster than Internet Explorer 8 and more than 4 times faster than Firefox 3 based on performance in leading industry benchmark tests: iBench and SunSpider.

Windows Native Look and Feel

If you’re using Safari on a PC with Windows Vista or Windows XP, you’ll feel right at home. That’s because Safari features a native look — just like other Windows applications — including a native title bar, borders, and toolbars. To provide a consistent Windows experience, Safari now uses Windows standard fonts, but you can choose to use Apple’s crisp anti-aliased fonts if you prefer. Of course, Safari for Windows delivers the same lightning-fast performance provided by the Mac version.

Full-Page Zoom

Get a close look at even the finest print using Full-Page Zoom. Safari scales images and graphics as you zoom in and keeps text razor sharp while preserving the page layout perfectly.

Smart Address Field

Just start typing, and the Smart Address Field instantly offers suggestions. You’ll see the Top Hit and the best matches from your browsing history and bookmark collections, each in their own easy-to-read section.

Smart Search Field

Safari offers excellent search suggestions courtesy of Google Suggest and your recent search history, making it even easier to conduct productive searches. You can even search for text on the page you’re viewing.

Phishing and Malware Protection

Land on a suspicious website, and you’ll know right away. Safari automatically alerts you and won’t open the page. EV Certificate support lets you easily spot legitimate sites.

overview of mozilla firefox

Firefox is always free, provide to you by Mozilla organization, with this article you can find more cool features and informations about latest Firefox 3.5

Private Browsing

When this feature is enabled, you won’t leave a single browsing fingerprint behind for others to discover. You can slip in and out of private browsing mode quickly, so it’s easy to return to what you were doing before as if nothing ever happened (you can also browse privately all the time)

Forget This Site

new Having second thoughts about having visited a certain Web site? With this feature, you can remove every trace of that site from your browser—no questions asked!


improved Firefox protects you from viruses, worms, trojan horses and spyware. If you accidentally access an attack site, it will warn you away from the site and tell you why it isn’t safe to use. Firefox checks every part of a Web page before loading it to make sure nothing harmful is sneaking in the back door.

Parental Controls

Enforce parental control settings you’ve entered on Vista—stop unwanted downloads and more.

Clear Recent History

improved Clear all your private data or just your activity over the past few hours with a few quick clicks. You have full control over what to delete, and then your info is gone for good—on your own computer or the one at your local library. It’s that easy.

Anti-Virus Software

Firefox integrates elegantly with your antivirus software. When you download a file, your computer’s antivirus program automatically checks it to protect you against viruses and other malware, which could otherwise attack your computer.

Pop-Up Blocker

Banish pop-ups (and pop-under windows) from your surfing experience once and for all. Or, find a happy medium—choose to view blocked pop-ups or create an “allow” list of sites whose pop-ups you’re okay with seeing.

Customized Security Settings

Control the level of scrutiny you’d like Firefox to give a site and enter exceptions—sites that don’t need the third degree. Customize settings for passwords, cookies, loading images and installing add-ons for a fully empowered Web experience.

Automated Update

Our open-source security strategy lets us find—and fix—security issues in record time, making Firefox the safest way to surf. Install upgrades when you receive automatic notification or wait until you’re ready.


Shop and do business safely on the Internet. Firefox gets a fresh update of web forgery sites 48 times in a day, so if you try to visit a fraudulent site that’s pretending to be a site you trust (like your bank), a browser message—big as life—will stop you.


Firefox looks for a secure connection before installing or updating add-ons, 3rd party software, and Personas.

Password Manager

We’ve seamlessly integrated this feature into your surfing experience. Choose to “remember” site passwords without intrusive pop-ups. Now you’ll see the “remember password” notification integrated into your view at the top of the site page.

Add-ons Manager

Find and install add-ons directly in your browser. You no longer need to visit the add-ons Web site—instead simply fire up the Add-ons Manager. Not sure which add-on is right for you? Ratings, recommendations, descriptions and pictures of the add-ons in action help you make your selection. The fully integrated add-on manager even lets you view, manage and disable third-party plug-ins in a few easy clicks.


improved Label a site with names or categories that are meaningful to you. For example, you can label the site with the “news” tag as well as the “foreign investments” tag, plus give the “news” tag, too. When you enter “news” into the location bar, both sites will be shown as results. A single site can have multiple tags, and there’s no limit to the number of tags you can create. You may not remember the exact name of a site, but with a tag, you’ll be able to find it in a way that makes sense to you.

One-Click Bookmarking

Manage your bookmarks a lot or a little. One click on the star icon at the end of the location bar bookmarks a site. Two clicks and you can choose where to save it and whether to tag it. File bookmarked sites in easy-to-access folders and organize according to theme (like “job search” or “favorite shopping”). Find your bookmarked sites in a flash by entering the tag, page or bookmark name into the location bar. The more you use your tags and bookmark names in the location bar, the more the system will adapt to your preferences.

RSS Feed Reader

You can read feeds using an online Web service, a client-side feed reader or by creating a Firefox Live Bookmark. So there’s no need to comb the Web for the latest news and updates. See the latest headlines in the toolbar or menu and go directly to the articles that catch your eye.

Download Manager

Download files seamlessly and securely! A pause and resume feature means there’s no need to wait for a download to finish before you disconnect. So, if you’re halfway through the latest White Stripes album and it’s time to catch the bus, just pause and pick up downloading when you get home. The resume function also works if your system crashes or is forced to restart. The manager shows your download progress and lets you search your files by name or the Web address where the download came from.

Spell Checking

A built-in spell checker lets you enter text directly into Web pages—like blog posts and Web-based email—without worrying about typos and misspellings. Work directly with the Web and save yourself a step.

Session Restore

improved Restart the browser without losing your place after you install an add-on or software update. And, if Firefox or your computer unexpectedly closes, you don’t have to spend time recovering data or retracing your steps through the Web. If you’re in the middle of typing an email, you’ll pick up where you left off, even down to the last word you typed. Session Restore instantly brings back your windows and tabs, restoring text you entered and any in-progress downloads.

Full Zoom

Visit your favorite news page and read the caption under the picture—or view the picture itself in a size you can see. An elegant new zoom feature lets you swoop in and see entire web pages. They scale in the way you’d expect them to, with all the elements of a page’s layout expanding equally, so you can zero in on what matters.


At first glance, they look like little labels living above the site you’re currently visiting. But they are a brilliant way to browse multiple sites at once. Simple and easy, you can think of them as the electronic version of a well kept filing cabinet, with the tabs as the dividers and the sites as the content kept in folders. Each new site appears as a new tab (not a new window) and can be accessed in one click.

Reopen Closed Tabs

If you accidentally close a tab, you can reopen it in one click. Just view Recently Closed Tabs in the History menu and select the tab you’d like to reopen.

Save on Exit

When you quit Firefox, you can save your tabs and windows for the next time you start. No need to reopen all your windows each time you start a session.

Smooth Scrolling

Like to have all 20 of your favorite pages open at once? An elegant new feature lets you scroll through tabs easily to see them all and access the one you want quickly.

Integrated Web Search

Searching the Web is a breeze with the search box inline, just to the right of your location bar. Select the search engine of your choice and type what you want to find directly into the box. The width is adjustable so you can make it bigger if you need more space.

Hundreds of Search Engines

Access your favorite search engines quickly from the integrated search bar. You can use a new engine for each search, or stick to your favorite. Choose from a preset dropdown list of engines or select “manage search engines” from the same list to browse search engine options offered as add-ons.

Web Application Integration

Expand the power of Web-based applications. In the past you’d click on an email address in a Web site and your computer’s default email application would open up to send a message to the linked address—even if you never email through the program. Now you can choose a Web mail clients (like Hotmail, Gmail or Yahoo! Mail) to launch when you click on that email address.

Offline Browsing

improved Take your computer offline and still have information at your fingertips. Certain enabled sites may allow applications—like your Web-based email—to stay with you at all times.

Open Video and Audio

new Introducing the future of online media! Firefox is the first browser to support open video and audio formats, allowing practically limitless new ways for sites to display rich content. The open formats also allow modern web pages to display media without requiring a plug-in or a proprietary software download.

Thursday, July 2, 2009

using command to reset TCP/IP

Follow these steps to use the reset command to reset TCP/IP
  • open command prompt
  • At the command prompt,type the following command and then press ENTER
  • netsh int ip reset c:\resetlog.txt
Note If you do not want to specify a directory path for the log file, use the following command:
  • netsh int ip reset resetlog.txt
  • Reboot the computer

how to resolve windows socket errors

cannot browse internet or local network? displaying errors looks like one of below

  • " unable to initialize windows socket interface error code 0, IPMONTR.DLL failed to start with error code 10107 "
  • " An error occurred while renewing interface 'Internet': An operation was attempted on something that is not a socket "
  • " An error occurred while renewing interface Local Area Connection: the requested service provider could not be loaded or initialized "
  • " The page cannot be displayed "
  • " An error occurred while renewing interface local area connection: an operation was attempted on something that is not a socket. Unable to contact driver Error code 2 "
  • " The operation failed since no adapter is in the state permissible for this operation "
  • " The attempted operation is not supported for the type of object referenced "

the meaning of these errors are the Winsock registry keys are damaged or corrupted.

how to determine the winsock2 key is corrupted for windows xp, use one of the following methods.

method 1 - Netdiag tool

To use the Netdiag tool, you must install the Microsoft Windows XP Support Tools. To do so, follow these steps
  • Insert your Windows XP Setup CD, and then locate the Support\Tools folder.
  • Double-click the Setup.exe file.
  • Follow the steps on the screen until you reach the Select An Installation Type screen.
  • On the Select An Installation Type screen, click Complete, and then click Next.
When the installation is complete, follow these steps
  • Click Start, click Run, type Command, and then click OK
  • Type netdiag /test:winsock, and then press ENTER.
The Netdiag tool will return the test results for several network components, including the Winsock. For more details about the test, use /v at the end of the netdiag command: netdiag /test:winsock /v

method 2 - use the Msinfo32 program

note -
Use this method only if you do not have a Windows XP Setup CD and you do not have Support Tools installed.

  • Click Start, click Run, type Msinfo32, and then click OK.
  • Expand Components, expand Network, and then click Protocol.
  • You will have ten sections under Protocol. The section headings will include the following names if the Winsock2 key is undamaged:
    • MSAFD Tcpip [TCP/IP]
    • MSAFD Tcpip [UDP/IP]
    • RSVP UDP Service Provider
    • RSVP TCP Service Provider
    • MSAFD NetBIOS [\Device\NetBT_Tcpip...
    • MSAFD NetBIOS [\Device\NetBT_Tcpip...
    • MSAFD NetBIOS [\Device\NetBT_Tcpip...
    • MSAFD NetBIOS [\Device\NetBT_Tcpip...
    • MSAFD NetBIOS [\Device\NetBT_Tcpip...
    • MSAFD NetBIOS [\Device\NetBT_Tcpip...

    If the names are anything different from those in this list, the Winsock2 key is corrupted, or you have a third-party add-on, such as proxy software, installed.
If you have a third-party add-on installed, the name of the add-on will replace the letters "MSAFD" in the list.

If there are more than ten sections in the list, you have third-party additions installed.

If there are fewer than ten sections, there is information missing.

manual steps to recover from winsock2 corruption

step 1

to repair winsock in windows xp
  • go to the command prompt
  • type netsh winsock reset at the command prompt, and then press ENTER.
  • Restart the computer after you run this command
step 2

deleted the corrupted registry key

This method contains steps that tell you how to modify the registry. However, serious problems might occur if you modify the registry incorrectly. Therefore, make sure that you follow these steps carefully.

  • Click Start, and then click Run.
  • In the Open box, type regedit, and then click OK.
  • In Registry Editor, locate the following keys, right-click each key, and then click Delete:
  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Winsock
  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Winsock2
  • When you are prompted to confirm the deletion, click Yes.
note - Restart the computer after you delete the Winsock keys. Doing so causes the Windows XP operating system to create new shell entries for those two keys. If you do not restart the computer after you delete the Winsock keys, the next step does not work correctly.

step 3

install TCP/IP

  • Right-click the network connection, and then click Properties.
  • Click Install.
  • Click Protocol, and then click Add.
  • Click Have Disk.
  • Type C:\Windows\inf, and then click OK.
  • On the list of available protocols, click Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click OK
  • Restart the computer.
If Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) does not appear, follow these steps:

Click Start, and then click Search
In the Search Companion pane, click More advanced options
Click to select the following three check boxes
  • Search system folders
  • Search hidden files and folders
  • Search subfolders
In the All or part of the file name box, type nettcpip.inf, and then click Search.
In the results pane, right-click Nettcpip.inf, and then click Install.
  • Restart the computer.